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        Professor Morwenna Griffiths

All Publications

This page lists all publications. For publications on specific areas see

Philosophy of Education

Social Justice

Feminism

Methodology

Reflective Practice

Auto/biography and Personal Narrative

Other research including visual methods and arts-based learning

International Handbook of Interpretation in Educational Research Methods,  Springer (with Paul Smeyers, David Bridges and Nick Burbules) 2014 http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/international-handbook-of-interpretation-in-educational-research%284c3e51d1-3ca5-470d-a116-7b7cae6c90ec%29.html

Abstract

‘General Introduction’ in (ed.)  Paul Smeyers, David Bridges, Nick Burbules and Morwenna Griffiths  International Handbook of Interpretation in Educational Research Methods,  Springer (with Paul Smeyers, David Bridges, Nick Burbules) 2014 http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/general-introduction%28d0a6e70c-f432-48e6-8475-5e6e9678f089%29.html Abstract

'Varieties of interpretation in educational research: How we frame the project’, in (ed.)  Paul Smeyers, David Bridges, Nick Burbules and Morwenna Griffiths  International Handbook of Interpretation in Educational Research Methods,  Springer (with Paul Smeyers, David Bridges, Nick Burbules) 2014 http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/international-handbook-of-interpretation-in-educational-research(4c3e51d1-3ca5-470d-a116-7b7cae6c90ec).html

Abstract

'Afterword: a conversation’ , in (ed.)  Paul Smeyers, David Bridges, Nick Burbules and Morwenna Griffiths  International Handbook of Interpretation in Educational Research Methods,  Springer (with Paul Smeyers, David Bridges, Nick Burbules) 2014 http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/afterword-a-conversation(b86fc2ff-bf64-42d1-bdbc-40a61bd88e2b).html

Abstract

Special Issue of Journal of Philosophy of Education: Re-imagining Relationships: Ethics, Politics, Practices 48(2) 2014 (with Marit Honorød Hoveid, Sharon Todd and Christine Winter) Also published as Re-imagining Relationships: Ethics, Politics, Practices Wiley-Blackwell 2014 http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/reimagining-relationships-in-education%2800539495-07ca-4c4e-8618-e47f536ed532%29.html                       Abstract

Editorial Journal of Philosophy of Education Special Issue: Re-imagining Relationships: Ethics, Politics and Practices, 48 (2) 2014        Abstract

Educational relationships: Rousseau, Wollstonecraft and social justice, Journal of Philosophy of Education Special Issue: Re-imagining Relationships: Ethics, Politics and Practices, 48 (2) 2014 http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/educational-relationships%284da98baa-55e1-4f4b-8d4e-6c1635b30a27%29.html Abstract

Re-thinking the relevance of philosophy of education for educational policy making Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (5) 2014 http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/rethinking-the-relevance-of-philosophy-of-education-for-educational-policy-making%286c39650a-ed66-4d5a-af84-e9ea98dc26a7%29.html      Abstract

Encouraging imagination and creativity in the teaching profession, European Educational Research Journal, 13 (1) 2014 http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/encouraging-imagination-and-creativity-in-the-teaching-profession%283c000446-9e15-4e63-8b19-3700adab85d5%29.html      Abstract

'Personal narrative, educational research and multipolar cosmopolitanism’ in George Lazaroiu (ed.) Liber amicorum: A Philosophical Conversation among Friends.  A Festschrift for Michael A. Peters. Addleton Academic Publishers 2014 Abstract

‘My life as a vixen’ in: Leonard Waks (ed.) Leaders in Philosophy of Education Volume 2, Sense Publishers 2014 Abstract

‘Two cheers for the BERA Report: 200 words on the significance of classroom relationships’.  Summary of Invited short talk at the General Teaching Council of Scotland Symposium on the BERA Report on Teacher Education. March 2014

Special Issue of Educational Theory: Love and Authority in Pedagogical Relations in a Neo-Liberal World, 63 (3) May  (with Aislinn O’Donnell and Amy Shuffelton) 2013

Abstract

 

Critically adaptive pedagogical relations: the relevance for education policy and practice Educational Theory Special Issue: Love and Authority in Pedagogical Relations in a Neo-Liberal World, June 2013http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/critically-adaptive-pedagogical-relations%28d6d433ea-2cb9-4e15-a435-9443fa5356d9%29.html               Abstract

Symposium on “The New Significance of Learning: Imagination’s Heartwork” by Pádraig Hogan (Routledge 2010 (with Pádraig Hogan, Kenneth Wayne and Bob Davis, Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (3) 2013 http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/symposium-on-the-new-significance-of-learning-imaginations-heartwork-by-pdraig-hogan(01ee6380-9390-4a11-89a9-0313f8a9f48c).html       Abstract

‘Social justice in education: joy in education and education for joy’ in Ira Bogotch and Carolyn M. Shields (eds.) International Handbook of Educational Leadership and Social (In)Justice, 2013              Abstract

‘Re-imagining inter-cultural approaches to pedagogy’ Invited Poster presented at Creativities in Intercultural Arts Network Forum Cambridge University October 2013

‘The professional update, practitioner enquiry and critically adaptive pedagogical relationships’ Keynote given at Strathclyde University, Teacher Education and Teachers' Work conference, June (powerpoint) 2013

Morwenna Griffiths and Michael A. Peters, ‘“I Knew Jean-Paul Sartre”: Philosophy of Education as Comedy. A Dialogue Between Morwenna Griffiths and Michael A. Peters’, Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations, 11, 2012. http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/i-knew-jeanpaul-sartre(b3a26289-f120-4f68-ac6d-6117d09d1c02).html Abstract

Is it possible to live a philosophical, educational life in education, nowadays?’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 46 (3) 2012 http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/is-it-possible-to-live-a-philosophical-educational-life-in-education-nowadays(4a41d2e3-4c2c-4a4b-a366-62fd48dc07b4).html     Abstract

Why joy in education is an issue for socially just policies’ Journal of Education Policy, (Special Issue eds. Becky Francis and Martin Mills: What would a socially just education system look like?, 27 (5), 2012 http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/why-joy-in-education-is-an-issue-for-socially-just-policies(d5fbcb53-457d-4ea8-94e5-c831a7d6d7e2).html                        Abstract

‘Feminist and academic? Being and becoming oneself’ Keynote given at Feminist Futures conference, Edinburgh University, September 2011 (powerpoint)

What kind of research culture do teacher educators want, and how can we get it? Studying Teacher Education, 6 (2) (with Tony Gemmell and Bob Kibble) 2010 http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/what-kind-of-research-culture-do-teacher-educators-want-and-how-can-we-get-it(3d25e164-f826-40c5-98e0-2c85a561f53c).html             Abstract

Research and the Self’ in Biggs, M. and Karlsson, H. (eds.)  Routledge Companion to Research in the Arts Routledge, (with examples written by Tony  Gemmell, Nettie Scriven, Peter Rumney, Irinya Kuksa,  Sara Giddens, and Simon Jones)  2010             Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, "Re-thinking the relevance of philosophy of education for educational policy making", Educational Philosophy and Theory http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-5812.2011.00825.x/            

 Morwenna Griffiths, "Social justice and educational delights." Journal of Education Policy, (Special Issue eds. Becky Francis and Martin Mills: What would a socially just education system look like?

 Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Evolving new methodologies in practitioner research: the case of visual methods’ in Issa M. Saleh and Myint Swe Khine (eds.) (2011) Practitioner Research: Teachers’ Investigations in Classroom Teaching, New York: Nova Science Publishers, (with Zoe Williamson)Abstract

Bob Davis, Morwenna Griffiths, Pádraig Hogan, and Kenneth Wayne, Symposium on ‘The New Significance of Learning: Imagination’s Heartwork’, Pádraig Hogan (Routledge 2010)  Educational Philosophy and Theory  (

Morwenna Griffiths and Zoè Williamson, ‘Evolving new methodologies in practitioner research: the case of visual methods’ in Issa M. Saleh and Myint Swe Khine (eds.) Practitioner Research: Teachers’ Investigations in Classroom Teaching, New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2011

Griffiths, Morwenna, 'Social justice and educational delights.' Paper presented at The Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain Annual Conference, Oxford, 2010

Griffiths, Morwenna, ‘Research and the Self’ in Biggs, M. and Karlsson, H. (eds.)  Routledge Companion to Research in the Arts Routledge, 2010 (with examples written by Tony  Gemmell, Nettie Scriven, Peter Rumney, Irinya Kuksa,  Sara Giddens, and Simon Jones)      Abstract

Griffiths, Morwenna,  Tony Gemmell and Bob Kibble, What kind of research culture do teacher educators want, and how can we get it? Studying Teacher Education, 2010 6 (2)        Abstract

Griffiths, Morwenna, 'Justice, joy and educational delights' Inaugural Lecture, Moray House School of Education, Edinburgh University. 2009                

Griffiths, Morwenna, Heather Malcolm and Zoe Williamson, ‘Faces and Spaces and Doing Research’ in Tidwell, D.L., Heston, M.L. and Fitzgerald, L.M. (eds) Research Methods for the Self-Study of Practice, Springer 2009        Abstract

Griffiths, Morwenna and Gale Macleod, ‘Personal narratives and policy: never the twain?’ in Bridges, D., Smeyers, P. and Smith, R. (eds) Evidence-based Education Policy Wiley 2009                               Abstract

And in:

Griffiths, Morwenna and Gale Macleod,  ‘Personal narratives and policy: never the twain?’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 2008 42 (s1). http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/personal-narratives-and-policy-never-the-twain(734cd23e-f618-43d4-a698-e3b4dee3b3af).html                   Abstract

The Nottingham apprenticeship model: schools in partnership with artists and creative practitioners British Educational Research Journal, (with Felicity Woolf) 35 (4) 2009 http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/the-nottingham-apprenticeship-model-schools-in-partnership-with-artists-and-creative-practitioners(519c8b93-e0a3-41f9-99ea-f9dcd694ac22).html                                       Abstract

Griffiths, Morwenna. (2009) Critical Approaches in qualitative educational research. Accessed on-line at http://www.bera.ac.uk/critical-approaches-in-qualitative-educational-research      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Action research for/as/mindful of social justice’ in Bridget Somekh and Susan Noffke (eds.) Handbook of Educational Action Research, Sage (2009).      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Hamish Ross, ‘Public space, participation and expressive arts’ in Bob Lingard, Jon Nixon and Stewart Ransom (eds.) Transforming Learning, Continuum (2008)      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, What kind of research evidence should our leaders use? Scottish Educational Review, 40 (1) 2008

Morwenna Griffiths and Felicity Woolf, The Nottingham apprenticeship model: schools in partnership with artists and creative practitioners, British Educational Research Journal, 34 (4) 2008

Joan Cutting, Richard Easton, Tony Gemmell, Morwenna Griffiths, Neil Houston, Bob Kibble, Heather Malcolm, Jannet Robinson, Hamish Ross, 'Building a Research Culture in a Teacher Education Environment:  What kind of research culture do we want? And how do we get it?' European Conference on Educational Research, Ghent, September 2007

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Being Naughty to be Good: Playing at/as being Authentic’ in Deborah Orr and Diana Taylor (eds.) Lessons from the Gynaeceum: Women Philosophizing — Past, Present and Future, Rowman and Littlefield (2007).     Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Jean Barr, ‘The nature of knowledge and lifelong learning' in David Aspin (ed.) Philosophical Perspectives on Lifelong Learning, Springer Press (2007)      Abstract 

Morwenna Griffiths, (with Judy Berry, Anne Holt, John Naylor and Philippa Weekes) ‘Learning to be in public spaces: in from the margins with dancers, sculptors, painters and musicians' in Chris Gaine, Ghazala Bhatti, Yvonne Leeman and Francesca Gobbo (eds.) Social Justice and Intercultural Education: an Open-Ended Dialogue, Trentham 2007      Abstract

Peter Bowbrick and Morwenna Griffiths, Girls’ Schooldays in Ruddington Remembered 2007) Ruddington, Nottinghamshire: Ruddington Village Museum

Peter Bowbrick and Morwenna Griffiths, Boys’ Schooldays in Ruddington Remembered 2007) Ruddington, Nottinghamshire: Ruddington Village Museum

Morwenna Griffiths and Tony Cotton, Action research, stories and practical philosophy, Educational Action Research, 15 (4) 2007      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, Judy Berry, Anne Holt. John Naylor and Philippa Weekes) Learning to be in public spaces: in from the margins with dancers, sculptors, painters and musicians, British Journal of Educational Studies (Special Issue on Social Justice) (54 (3) 2006.       Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘The feminization of teaching and the practice of teaching: threat or opportunity? Educational Theory 56(4) Fall 2006     Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, Joseph Windle and Margaret Simms ‘“That’s what I am here for”: Images of working lives of academic and support staff in D. Tidwell and L. Fitzgerald (eds.) Self-study and Diversity New York: Springer 2006

Morwenna Griffiths, A feminist perspective on communities of practice Socio-cultural Theory in Educational Research and Practice, Manchester, September, 2005

Morwenna Griffiths 'Being naughty: a play for justice?' Inaugural Lecture, Nottingham Trent University.

Morwenna Griffiths and Dina Poursanidou, ‘A self-study of collaborations among teacher educators’ Studying Teacher Education 1 (2) 2005      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Felicity Woolf, Report on Creative Partnerships Nottingham Action Research for Creative Partnerships Nottingham  Published 2004

Morwenna Griffiths and Felicity Woolf, The Nottingham apprenticeship model: schools in partnership with artists and creative practitioners, British Educational Research Journal, 34 (4) 2008

Morwenna Griffiths, in dialogue with Lis Bass, Marilyn Johnston and Victoria Perselli ‘Knowledge, social justice, and self-study’ in J. Loughran, M.L. Hamilton, V. LaBoskey and T. Russell (eds.) International Handbook of Self-Study of Teaching and Teacher Education Practices New York: Kluwer 2004      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, Action for Social Justice in Education: Fairly Different Buckingham: Open University Press 2003    Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Jean Barr, ‘Training the imagination to “go visiting”‘ in M. Walker and J. Nixon (eds.) Reclaiming Universities from a Runaway World Buckingham, Open University Press 2003   Abstract  

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Ten principles of social justice in educational research: two cases of contract research’ Review Journal of Philosophy and the Social Sciences 27 (2) 2002

Morwenna Griffiths and Maxine Greene, ‘Feminism, philosophy and education: imagining public spaces’ in N. Blake, P. Smeyers, R. Smith and P. Standish (eds.) The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Education Oxford: Basil Blackwell 2002.    Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Joseph Windle, Helping teacher educators learn to research: bread and roses? Fourth International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex August 2002

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Questions of personal autonomy’ in K.W.M. Fulford, D.L. Dickenson and T.M. Murray (eds.) The Blackwell Reader in Healthcare Ethics Oxford: Basil Blackwell 2002.     Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘“Nothing grand”: small tales and working for social justice’ in J. Loughran and T. Russell (eds.) Reframing Teacher Education Practices: Exploring meaning through self-study Falmer Press 2002

Deborah Chetcuti and Morwenna Griffiths, ‘The implications for student self-esteem of ordinary differences in different schools: the cases of Malta and England’ British Educational Research Journal 28 (4) 2002     Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Mitja Sardoc, The School Field: Special Issue on Justice in/and Education 2001/2      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Social justice for education: what kind of theory is needed?’ The School Field (Special Issue: Justice in/and Education) XII (1/2) 2001 T    Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Theorising social justice for education’ Annual Conference of the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain Oxford April 2000

Morwenna GriffithsThe role of the education librarian in education research: A user’s perspective.’ Education Libraries Journal 42 2000

Morwenna Griffiths, Richard Winter and Kath Green ‘The academic qualities of practice: what are the criteria for a practice-based doctorate?’ Studies in Higher Education 25 (1) 2000

Morwenna Griffiths and Graham Impey, Working Partnerships: Better Research and Learning Nottingham Trent University 2000     Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Collaboration and partnership in question: knowledge, politics and practiceJournal of Education Policy (Special Issue: Philosophical Perspectives on Education Policy) 15 (4) 2000      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘ “Nothing Grand”: Small tales and working for social justice’ Third International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex August 2000

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Playing at/as being authentic’ in J. Swift (ed.) Art Education Discourses: Leaf and Seed Birmingham:ARTicle Press 1999

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Aiming for a fair education: what use is philosophy?’ in R. Marples (ed.) Aims of Education London and New York: Routledge 1999

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Principles of social justice in educational research: the case of contract research’ The School Field X (1/2) (1999)    Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Towards a theoretical framework for understanding social justice in educational practice Educational Philosophy and Theory 30 (2) 1998

Morwenna Griffiths, 'Telling Stories about Collaboration: Secrets and Lies?' Paper presented at BERA 1998 in the Symposium: Narrative/Fiction and the Art of Research

Morwenna Griffiths, Educational Research for Social Justice: Getting off the Fence Buckingham: Open University Press 1998 Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, David Bridges and Wilfred Carr Cambridge Journal of Education: Special issue on Philosophy and Educational Research 1997.      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford, Women Review Philosophy: New Writing by Women in Philosophy Nottingham University 1996     Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, Feminisms and the Self: The Web of Identity London and New York: Routledge 1995      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminist perspectives on the use of life narratives in a primary classroom’ in D. Thomas (ed.) Teachers’ Stories Buckingham: Open University Press 1995

Morwenna Griffiths and Carol Davies, In Fairness to Children: Working for Social Justice in the Primary School London: David Fulton 1995      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Self-determination and learning to be cruel: gender, race and the construction of self in relation to bullying and harassmentEuropean Journal of Women’s Studies 98 (2) 1998

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘The discourses of social justice in schoolsBritish Educational Research Journal 24 (3) 1998    Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Towards a theoretical framework for understanding social justice in educational practice’ Educational Philosophy and Theory 30 (2) 1998

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Why teachers and philosophers need each other: philosophy and educational researchCambridge Journal of Education (Special Issue: Philosophy and Educational Research) 27 (2) 1997      Abstracts

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Know thyself: philosophy/self-study’ First International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices) Herstmonceux, Sussex August 1996

Morwenna Griffiths and Carol Davies, ‘Insults and injuries: bullying and harassment in primary schools’ Current Research in Early Childhood 79 (Spring) 1996

Morwenna Griffiths and Carol Davies, ‘Learning to learn: action research from an equal opportunities perspective in a junior school’ British Educational Research Journal 19 (1) 1993       Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Making a difference: feminism, postmodernism and the methodology of educational researchBritish Educational Research Journal 21 (2) 1995      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Barry Troyna, Anti-racism, Culture and Social Justice in Education Stoke: Trentham 1995

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Auto/biography and epistemologyEducational Review 47 (1) 1995      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Marie Parker-Jenkins, ‘Methodological and ethical dilemmas in international research: school attendance and gender in GhanaOxford Review of Education 20 (4) 1994.      Abstract  

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminism, feelings and philosophy (selection)’ in D.C. Abel Fifty Readings in Philosophy New York: McGraw Hill 1994

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Autobiography, feminism and the practice of action-research’ International Journal of Educational Action Research 2 (1) 1994

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Self-identity and self-esteem: achieving equality in educationOxford Review of Education 19 (3) 1993      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Educational change and the self’ British Journal of Educational Studies 41 (2) 1993

Morwenna Griffiths and Anne Seller, ‘The politics of identity, the politics of the self’ Women: A Cultural Review (Special Issue: Gendering philosophy) 3 (2) 1992

Morwenna Griffiths, Self-identity, Self-esteem, and Social Justice Nottingham: University of Nottingham 1992

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Autonomy and the fear of dependence’ Women’s Studies International Forum 15 (3) 1992      Abstract

 Morwenna Griffiths and Sarah Tann, ‘Using reflective practice to link personal and public theories’ Journal of Education for Teaching 18 (1) 1992

Morwenna Griffiths and Anne Seller, ‘The politics of identity, the politics of the self’ Women: A Cultural Review (Special Issue: Gendering philosophy) 3 (2) 1992  

Morwenna Griffiths and Sarah Tann, ‘Ripples in the reflection’ in P. Lomax (ed.) Managing Better Schools and Colleges: an action research approach Clevedon: Multilingual Matters 1991

Morwenna Griffiths and Kate Ashcroft, ‘Action research in teacher education’ in O. Zuber-Skerritt (ed.) Action Research in Higher Education Brisbane: Griffith University 1991

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Action research: grassroots practice or management tool?’ in P. Lomax (ed.) Managing Staff Development in Schools Clevedon: Multilingual Matters 1990

Morwenna Griffiths and Kate Ashcroft, ‘Reflective teachers and reflective tutors: school experience in an initial teacher education course’ Journal of Education for Teaching 15 (1) 1989

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London and Indiana: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988.  Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford, ‘Introduction’ in M. Griffiths and M. Whitford (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminism, feelings and philosophy’ in M. Griffiths and M. Whitford (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Why philosophy needs feminism’ Cogito 3 (3) 1989.        Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Richard Smith, ‘Standing alone: dependence, independence and interdependence’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 23 (2) 1989      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Strong feelings about computers’ Women’s Studies International Forum 11 (2) 1988      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Alfrey, ‘Girls and computers in primary schools’ Journal of Curriculum Studies 20 (5) 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Teaching skills and the skills of teaching’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 21 (2) 1987

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Hirst’s forms of knowledge and Korner’s categorial frameworks’ Oxford Review of Education 12 (2) 1986      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Vigilance, subversion and imagination about computers’ The European Conference on Women, Natural Sciences and Technology, Aalborg, Denmark, 1986

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Dunlop, expression and emotion’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 19 (2) 1985.      Abstract

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Emotions and education’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 18 (2) 1984.       Abstract

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International Handbook of Interpretation in Educational Research Methods,  Springer (with Paul Smeyers, David Bridges and Nick Burbules) 2014

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/international-handbook-of-interpretation-in-educational-research%284c3e51d1-3ca5-470d-a116-7b7cae6c90ec%29.html

This handbook focuses on the often neglected dimension of interpretation in educational research. It argues that all educational research is in some sense ‘interpretive’, and that understanding this issue belies some usual dualisms of thought and practice, such as the sharp dichotomy between ‘qualitative’ and ‘quantitative’ research. Interpretation extends from the very framing of the research task, through the sources which constitute the data, the process of their recording, representation and analysis, to the way in which the research is finally or provisionally presented. The thesis of the handbook is that interpretation cuts across the fields (both philosophically, organizationally and methodologically). By covering a comprehensive range of research approaches and methodologies, the handbook gives (early career) researchers what they need to know in order to decide what particular methods can offer for various educational research contexts/fields. An extensive overview includes concrete examples of different kinds of research (not limited for example to ‘teaching’ and ‘learning’ examples as present in the Anglo-Saxon tradition, but including as well what in the German Continental tradition is labelled ‘pädagogisch’, examples from child rearing and other contexts of non-formal education) with full description and explanation of why these were chosen in particular circumstances and reflection on the wisdom or otherwise of the choice – combined in each case with consideration of the role of interpretation in the process. The handbook includes examples of a large number of methods traditionally classified as qualitative, interpretive and quantitative used across the area of the study of education. Examples are drawn from across the globe, thus exemplifying the different ‘opportunities and constraints’ that educational research has to confront in different societies.

 

‘General Introduction’ in (ed.)  Paul Smeyers, David Bridges, Nick Burbules and Morwenna Griffiths  International Handbook of Interpretation in Educational Research Methods,  Springer (with Paul Smeyers, David Bridges, Nick Burbules) 2014

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/general-introduction%28d0a6e70c-f432-48e6-8475-5e6e9678f089%29.html

This book helps researchers to understand better the role of interpretation in educational research—and we hope to understand better the variety of ways that interpretation enters into the research process. It focuses on the specifics of interpretation in the actual doing of educational research, but it is not a how-to book. The International Handbook of Interpretation in Educational Research Methods does not offer specific instruction about how to proceed when engaging in educational research, but rather offers the possibility of what Lave and Wenger called “legitimate peripheral participation” in witnessing a variety of forms of research covering a broad range of issues and settings. Educational research pursues different kinds of theoretical interests and uses a diversity of modes of explanation. The Handbook reflects this variety through its international array of authors, settings, questions, and methods, emphasizing that the field of education includes some very diverse objects of inquiry and that researchers in different parts of the world give priority to different aspects of educational policy and practice as well as to different ways of investigating them. It is in the focus on interpretation that we try to bring these different approaches into conversation with each other.

 

‘Varieties of interpretation in educational research: How we frame the project’, in (ed.)  Paul Smeyers, David Bridges, Nick Burbules and Morwenna Griffiths  International Handbook of Interpretation in Educational Research Methods,  Springer (with Paul Smeyers, David Bridges, Nick Burbules) 2014

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/international-handbook-of-interpretation-in-educational-research(4c3e51d1-3ca5-470d-a116-7b7cae6c90ec).html

In this overview essay, we develop several claims that are central to the way we organized this book. First, we began by challenging the idea that there are particular approaches to educational research that are “interpretive,” whereas other approaches are not. We argue that all modes of inquiry necessarily involve interpretation, and at various stages of the process. Second, however, the kinds of interpretation arising from different methodologies or theoretical approaches vary, and have only a broad “family resemblance” similarity to each other. Hence, third, we believe that the best approach to exploring the role of interpretation in educational research is to begin with real cases, and to draw from each the particular ways in which interpretation entered into the investigation. This is what we asked the authors in this Handbook to do. Finally, fourth, we examine the various criteria of judgment that might allow us to differentiate “good” interpretations from “bad” ones – and argue that this judgment cannot be made simply on the basis of “right” and “wrong” interpretations, let alone “true” and “false” ones.

 

‘Afterword: a conversation’ , in (ed.)  Paul Smeyers, David Bridges, Nick Burbules and Morwenna Griffiths  International Handbook of Interpretation in Educational Research Methods,  Springer (with Paul Smeyers, David Bridges, Nick Burbules) 2014

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/afterword-a-conversation(b86fc2ff-bf64-42d1-bdbc-40a61bd88e2b).html

In this Handbook the editors invited contributors to reflect on research in which they have been involved, considering why they adopted the research approach they did and in particular what was the role of interpretation in the process of research. The 65 cases produced diverse responses to this task, and it would probably not be very sensible to attempt either a summary or a ‘conclusion’. Nevertheless, having reviewed all these studies, we thought it appropriate that we ourselves should reflect on the material that we had been reading and on our own editorial process and purposes. This Afterword is an edited version of a conversation that took place at our last face-to-face working session on the Handbook.

 

Special Issue of Journal of Philosophy of Education: Re-imagining Relationships: Ethics, Politics, Practices 48(2) 2014 (with Marit Honorød Hoveid, Sharon Todd and Christine Winter) Also published as Re-imagining Relationships: Ethics, Politics, Practices Wiley-Blackwell 2014

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/reimagining-relationships-in-education%2800539495-07ca-4c4e-8618-e47f536ed532%29.html

 

Editorial Journal of Philosophy of Education Special Issue: Re-imagining Relationships: Ethics, Politics and Practices, 48 (2) 2014

Is “education” simply a faceless enterprise concerned with the sterile transmission of knowledge? Or is it that the sum of interpersonal connections, attachments, and affiliations between teachers and students better represents the pinnacle of a true education?  Bringing state-of-the-art theoretical and philosophical insights to bear on current teaching practices, Re-Imagining Relationships in Education offers a fundamental reconsideration and re-imagining of relationships in contemporary education. Featuring contributions from a wide range of international theorists of varying philosophical specialties, the majority of essays reframe the issue of relationships between teachers and students as intrinsically linked with the ethical and political nature of education. Others extend our conceptions of relationships beyond the humanist enterprise and analyse how relationships matter a great deal to the larger demands currently placed on educational practices—those by the state, community, local traditions, and global trends. Authors draw on a wide range of philosophical traditions—from Arendt, Beckett, Irigaray and Wollstonecraft to name but a few—while exploring themes of dependence, performativity, embodiment, sexual difference, and social justice. Innovative and thought-provoking, Re-Imagining Relationships in Education offers illuminating insights into the potential of relationships in education to reshape the practice of 21st-century learning. Contributors:
Morwenna Griffiths, Marit Honerød Hoveid, Sharon Todd and Christine Winter ‘Introduction’; Rachel Jones ‘Re-reading Diotima: Resources for a Relational Pedagogy’; Caroline Wilson ‘Towards a Thinking and Practice of Sexual Difference: Putting the Practice of Relationship at the Centre’; Amy Shuffelton ‘New Fatherhood’ and the Politics of Dependency’; Sharon Todd ‘Between Body and Spirit: The Liminality of Pedagogical Relationships’; Marit Honerød Hoveid and Arnhild Finne ‘You Have to Give of Yourself’: Care and Love in Pedagogical Relations’; Aislinn O’Donnell ‘Another Relationship to Failure: Reflections on Beckett and Education’; Christine Winter ‘Curriculum Knowledge, Justice, Relations: The Schools White Paper (2010) in England’; Rebecca Adami Re-Thinking Relations in Human Rights Education: The Politics of Narratives’; Ruth Cigman ‘Happiness Rich and Poor: Lessons From Philosophy and Literature’; Heather Greenhalgh-Spencer ‘Guattari’s Ecosophy and Implications for Pedagogy’;  Morwenna Griffiths ‘Educational Relationships: Rousseau, Wollstonecraft and Social Justice’

 

Educational relationships: Rousseau, Wollstonecraft and social justice, Journal of Philosophy of Education Special Issue: Re-imagining Relationships: Ethics, Politics and Practices, 48 (2) 2014

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/educational-relationships%284da98baa-55e1-4f4b-8d4e-6c1635b30a27%29.html

I consider educational relationships as found in Rousseau's Émile (and elsewhere in his writing) and the critique of his views in Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Women. Wollstonecraft's critique is a significant one, precisely because of her partial agreement with Rousseau. Like Rousseau, her concern is less to do with particular pedagogical techniques or even approaches, more to do with the full complexity of educational relationships. The educational relationships they consider include those between human beings now and in the future, between teacher and student(s), between students, and between human beings and the rest of the natural world, the more-than-human. Both Rousseau and Wollstonecraft wanted education to produce social justice in the future as well as being a benefit to young people in the present, but while he specified that future, she wanted to create the conditions in which future generations could construct it for themselves, when sex equality was put into practice. Gender relations are key to understanding their differences, as I discuss, with particular emphasis on Wollstonecraft's understanding of our human relationship to the rest of the natural world, the more-than-human. These relationships are seldom recognised as contributing to a more socially just education, so I consider them at a little more length, drawing from observations by Kathleen Jamie and using an example from outdoor education to suggest possible implications for educational practices.

 

Re-thinking the relevance of philosophy of education for educational policy making Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (5) 2014

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/rethinking-the-relevance-of-philosophy-of-education-for-educational-policy-making%286c39650a-ed66-4d5a-af84-e9ea98dc26a7%29.html

The overall question addressed in this article is, ‘What kind of philosophy of education is relevant to educational policy makers?’ The article focuses on the following four themes: The meanings attached to the term philosophy (of education) by philosophers themselves; the meanings attached to the term philosophy (of education) by policy makers; the difference place and time makes to these meanings; how these different meanings affect the possibility of philosophy (of education) influencing policy. The question is addressed using philosophical methods and empirical evidence from conversations and conversational interviews with some philosophers of education and other educational researchers. The argument begins with an investigation of different ways of understanding philosophy and philosophy of education in relation to education and educational policy. It then examines first the current policy context and secondly some evidence about the practices of policy makers in relation to ideas and to research. It goes on to present some of the findings from the conversational evidence. The article is drawn together in the penultimate section where I make some suggestions about possible fruitful relationships between doing philosophy and policy making. Finally, in the concluding section, some further—thorny—questions are raised by the analysis, especially in relationship to ethics and social justice.

 

Encouraging imagination and creativity in the teaching profession, European Educational Research Journal, 13 (1) 2014

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/encouraging-imagination-and-creativity-in-the-teaching-profession%283c000446-9e15-4e63-8b19-3700adab85d5%29.html

In this article it is argued that an important task of career-long teacher education is the encouragement of imagination and creativity in experienced teachers. The task implies a reversal of the managerialism that currently afflicts so many European education systems. The article begins by giving an analysis of pedagogical relationships to expose some of the reasons that teaching is an extraordinarily complex activity, which it is difficult to do well. Indeed it is so complex that it is not something that can be learnt in advance of experience. Therefore early-career teachers need to develop their skills before they can become fully competent. However experience is not enough on its own. To become excellent - that is, more than proficient - requires a career-long commitment to self-cultivation as teachers. Part of the reason that the commitment needs to be career-long is that teaching contexts are in a continual state of change, and teachers need to adapt through a process of self-cultivation.

 

‘Personal narrative, educational research and multipolar cosmopolitanism’ in George Lazaroiu (ed.) Liber amicorum: A Philosophical Conversation among Friends.  A Festschrift for Michael A. Peters. Addleton Academic Publishers 2014

I argue that the current discussion of cosmopolitanism and the cosmopolitan order demonstrates that more attention needs to be paid to the significance of contextual as opposed to generalizable knowledge of education, especially in relation to diversity and injustice within and between regions of the world. This is a familiar, if not uncontroversial, epistemological position in educational research, except that many such arguments ignore the unjust distribution of resources, voice and influence across the post-colonial world. This injustice has been widely discussed in relation to economic and macro-politics but is less often noticed in relation to the global use of educational research in policy and practice. In this article I argue that the use of personal narrative research may be a means for the less resourced, less heard, less influential parts of the world to resist implementing educational policy which is based in research carried out in other contexts, and which may be pernicious in its unintentional effects.  It may also be a way of persuading the West to relinquish its modernist hope of overarching universals of propositional and practical knowledge, and acknowledge that the world is not only plural but variously multipolar, a world in which a range of poles exist in tension with the others.

 

‘My life as a vixen’ in: Leonard Waks (ed.) Leaders in Philosophy of Education Volume 2, Sense Publishers 2014

Isaiah Berlin’s influential essay, ‘The Hedgehog and the Fox’ suggests that there are two categories of thinkers (Berlin, 1969). Using an ancient Greek poetic fragment (‘The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing’), he suggests they can be divided into hedgehogs who view the world through the lens of a single defining idea and foxes, who draw on a wide variety of experiences and for whom the world cannot be boiled down to a single idea. I am a fox – in fact, a vixen (perhaps not something that would have occurred to Berlin whose references are uniformly to males). Looking back on my intellectual history, I see that it is one in which my ideas have changed and emerged as I moved from one social context to another, collaborated with other people, taught in a range of institutions, and relished the challenge of coming to grips with unfamiliar ideas. I have never stopped learning from the very beginning of my career as an educator, when I was an untrained volunteer in a socially disadvantaged primary school, to my current position as a professor of education at Edinburgh University. The longer I continue in education, the more I realise the need to go on developing my practices and my understanding. I still wonder what to do for the best. I keep on making mistakes (new ones!), and I keep on learning from them. I think I understand more than I did. But I am still puzzled and perplexed by the ideas I encounter and am still thinking hard about how to deal with them.

 

‘Two cheers for the BERA Report: 200 words on the significance of classroom relationships’.  Summary of Invited short talk at the General Teaching Council of Scotland Symposium on the BERA Report on Teacher Education. March 2014

 

Special Issue of Educational Theory: Love and Authority in Pedagogical Relations in a Neo-Liberal World, 63 (3) May  (with Aislinn O’Donnell and Amy Shuffelton) 2013

This set of papers focuses on pedagogical relationships, in the context of wider issues of pedagogy and professional practice, and also within the context of current educational policy trends. Pedagogy – teaching and learning – are increasingly the focus of policy initiatives and edicts across the developed world. There has been less attention paid to pedagogical relationships. This is an interesting gap, because those relationships are at the heart of education – or so we contend. This lack of attention may be because such relationships are difficult to measure or even to inspect – though they are constrained, and often constricted, by policies relating to the micromanagement of teaching. The difficulty of surveillance may mean that it is possible for pedagogical relationships to retain a measure of independence from policies: even perhaps to escape and subvert them. In this set of papers, we argue that love and authority are central to the relationships teachers and students have with each other and with their colleagues. The argument is diverse. The different authors have different, sometimes opposing, views about pedagogical relationships, and the place of love and authority within them.  Indeed although many of them discuss Arendt, it is clear they draw on a range of philosophical traditions. But all the papers present a challenge to current policy thinking. The papers in the project are intentionally wide in scope though with a number of overlapping concerns and theoretical frameworks. Together they form a body of work which comes from a number of different nation states and takes in a broad range of pedagogical contexts. The authors of these papers come from 6 different countries: England, Germany, Ireland, Scotland, Slovenia, Sweden and the USA. They refer to their own national policies, but locate them in the context of global trends. Pedagogical relations are discussed in relation to school education, university education and prison education.

 

Critically adaptive pedagogical relations: the relevance for education policy and practice Educational Theory Special Issue: Love and Authority in Pedagogical Relations in a Neo-Liberal World, June 2013

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/critically-adaptive-pedagogical-relations%28d6d433ea-2cb9-4e15-a435-9443fa5356d9%29.html

In this article Morwenna Griffiths argues that teacher education policies should be predicated on a proper and full understanding of pedagogical relations as contingent, responsive, and adaptive over the course of a career. Griffiths uses the example of the recent report on teacher education in Scotland, by Graham Donaldson, to argue that for all the report’s considerable merits, it remains deficient because it does not attend to the complexity and contingency of pedagogical relations. The complexity arises from the existence of (at least) four analytically distinguishable pedagogical relations, each of which interacts with the others. These relations are contingent on the embodiment of teacher and students and on the political and sociocultural context of the class. Therefore they are also contingent on time, as teachers age and as the political and sociocultural context changes. Griffiths concludes the article with suggestions for creating a teaching profession in which teachers are reflectively and critically adaptive during the course of their careers.

 

Symposium on “The New Significance of Learning: Imagination’s Heartwork” by Pádraig Hogan (Routledge 2010 (with Pádraig Hogan, Kenneth Wayne and Bob Davis, Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (3) 2013

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/symposium-on-the-new-significance-of-learning-imaginations-heartwork-by-pdraig-hogan(01ee6380-9390-4a11-89a9-0313f8a9f48c).html

I like Hogan’s book for reasons beyond the message and the insights it has offered me. I find that the argument invites engagement by setting up clear, argued, often controversial, certainly not currently orthodox, positions. And it does so in a language that eschews the deadening style of policy and report writing, as well as the exclusivity of much academic writing. In what follows I accept the invitation in a spirit of conversational critique, which is intended to be constructive as well as critical. In this spirit I offer two reasons to pause for further thought about Hogan’s arguments, suggesting ways in which it is not radical enough, and also ways in which the argument as he presents it is not cognisant enough of the always specific but ever-changing articulation of the educational practices he discusses. The first pause for thought which I offer relates to what Hogan describes as the inherent benefits of educational practice. I propose that the lines he draws between what extrinsic and inherent benefits of educational practices are not quite as he describes them. The recognition of the difficulty of drawing the extrinsic/inherent distinction gives me a second pause for thought. I shall now briefly consider the integrity of educational practice in relation to what Hogan calls ‘best purposes’. Using Hogan’s own example of examinations, I want to draw attention to
how the ‘best purposes’ understood as ‘social justice’ might act against the ‘best purposes’ understood purely in terms of an individual teacher and her students.

 

‘Social justice in education: joy in education and education for joy’ in Ira Bogotch and Carolyn M. Shields (eds.) International Handbook of Educational Leadership and Social (In)Justice, 2013

This chapter proposes that educational leadership is properly characterised as leadership for social justice, and, therefore, for joy from learning and joy in learning. My argument takes the form of a critical, philosophical autoethnography which demonstrates and explains my current understanding of social justice, as a result of nearly forty years in education as a teacher, leader and researcher. I argue that social justice is an irreducibly complex concept. Smooth, simple formulations have their place, but only if they are continually brought into contact with the uneven awkwardness of the changing contexts of real classes, schools, colleges and universities. Using examples from my own experience to illuminate and interrogate ideas and practices, I develop a practical, theoretically informed approach to social justice for educational leaders. I argue that it would be helpful to think of social justice as a verb, since it is always an attempt to act in ways which make the world a good place to live, and in which good lives are lived. But such attempts are always made in the knowledge that all understanding and actions are founded on imperfect, provisional judgements made in specific contexts of learning and diversity. These judgements are difficult precisely because they require attention to a number of related principles while remaining mindful of how social contexts are always in a state of change. It is an approach in which the comforts of certainty are not available. However it is one in which enjoyment, satisfaction, and laughter help in the high purpose of constructing a satisfying working life dealing, with justice, with human individuals in all their wonderful complexity.

 

‘Re-imagining inter-cultural approaches to pedagogy’ Invited Poster presented at Creativities in Intercultural Arts Network Forum Cambridge University October 2013

 

‘The professional update, practitioner enquiry and critically adaptive pedagogical relationships’ Keynote given at Strathclyde University, Teacher Education and Teachers' Work conference, June (powerpoint) 2013

 

‘”I knew Jean-Paul Sartre”: Philosophy, education and comedy’ Educational Philosophy and TheoryDOI:  10.1080/00131857.2012.721734 (with Michael A. Peters). 2012

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/i-knew-jeanpaul-sartre(b3a26289-f120-4f68-ac6d-6117d09d1c02).html

Ludwig Wittgenstein suggests that ‘A serious and good philosophical work could be written consisting entirely of jokes’. The idea for this dialogue comes from a conversation that Michael Peters and Morwenna Griffiths had at the Philosophy of Education of Great Britain annual meeting at the University of Oxford, 2011. It was sparked by an account of an assessment of a piece of work where one of the external examiners unexpectedly exclaimed ‘I knew Jean-Paul Sartre’, trying to trump the discussion. This conversation is a dialogue about comedy and humor as a basis for philosophy, education and pedagogy that provides an introduction to recent works and a context for ongoing research. The concluding section provides further reflection on some of the main themes, drawing attention to the significance of humor in dialogues within philosophy and education, and suggesting that it has a particular role in resisting managerialism at all levels of educational institutions.

 

‘Is it possible to live a philosophical, educational life in education, nowadays?’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 46 (3) 2012

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/is-it-possible-to-live-a-philosophical-educational-life-in-education-nowadays(4a41d2e3-4c2c-4a4b-a366-62fd48dc07b4).html

I consider if and how far it is possible to live an educational philosophical life, in the fast-changing, globalised world of Higher Education. I begin with Socrates’ account of a philosophical life in the Apology. I examine some tensions within different conceptions of what it is to do philosophy. I then go on to focus more closely on what it might be to live a philosophical, educational life in which educational processes and outcomes are influenced by philosophy, using examples taken from published sources and from conversational interviews with philosophers carried out by myself with Kenneth Wain, Bas Levering and Richard Pring. I then outline the directions of current European policy for Higher Education. Finally I discuss how far current policies and trends leave room for doing philosophy of education, concluding that it is possible, but only for individuals who are very much in sympathy with current policy trends or who are creative in constructing smoke screens.

 

‘Why joy in education is an issue for socially just policies’ Journal of Education Policy, (Special Issue eds. Becky Francis and Martin Mills: What would a socially just education system look like?, 27 (5), 2012

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/why-joy-in-education-is-an-issue-for-socially-just-policies(d5fbcb53-457d-4ea8-94e5-c831a7d6d7e2).html

The paper presents an argument that the usual account of social justice in formal education is too narrow. That account concerns itself only with the outcomes of education or only with general ethical precepts, such as 'recognition'. I argue that it should also concern itself with living educational experiences as part of what makes a good life. I begin by noting that people find value in education for three linked but analytically separable reasons which I label: instrumental, inherent and integral. The last of these focuses on the value of education as part of what it is to live a good life. I point out how the usual accounts of social justice in education are seldom concerned with specifically educational experiences within formal education and that there is little clarity about the contribution of such experiences to living a good life. I offer a provisional account of specifically educational goods in experiences of education, and compare this to research and policy on enjoyment and engagement concluding that the significance of joy in education should be recognised within education policy.

 

‘Evolving new methodologies in practitioner research: the case of visual methods’ in Issa M. Saleh and Myint Swe Khine (eds.) Practitioner Research: Teachers’ Investigations in Classroom Teaching, New York: Nova Science Publishers, (with Zoe Williamson) 2011

Action research is often taken to be a methodology for problem solving. In this chapter we argue that such a view is overly narrow and can lead to a mechanistic approach to evidence and analysis. We claim that the methodological significance of action research is to be found in the use of evidence and analysis in enabling practitioners to re-frame and re-conceptualise their practice. We outline the epistemological basis of this claim, focusing on knowledge as represented in different modes of expression and on validity as productive. Using metaphors to reframe how we understand validity we foreground knowledge emerging from action research as multidimensional, partial, active and evolving. We ground the theoretical claims in a brief discussion of a range of visual methods used in our own action research. The rest of the chapter explores the ways in which visual methods were used in a collaborative study of the experiences of six teachers attempting to carry out action research in their schools. The teachers were invited to use visual methods in exploring their practice as action researchers. We show how far the use of visual methods influenced each of us in developing and rethinking our own practice.

 

‘Feminist and academic? Being and becoming oneself’ Keynote given at Feminist Futures conference, Edinburgh University, September 2011 (powerpoint)

 

What kind of research culture do teacher educators want, and how can we get it? Studying Teacher Education, 6 (2) (with Tony Gemmell and Bob Kibble) 2010

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/what-kind-of-research-culture-do-teacher-educators-want-and-how-can-we-get-it(3d25e164-f826-40c5-98e0-2c85a561f53c).html

This article describes a collaborative research journey involving nine teacher educators. Their common purpose was to find a research identity in a university department with a strong commitment to the education and training of student teachers but which existed within a university that prided itself on maintaining a reputation for research excellence. The methodology was inextricably linked to the decision to take a journey as a group. The journey, both route and progress, became the focus of our self-study through a number of exchange platforms including collaborative meetings, agendas which embraced equity and social justice, a shared blog space for self-reflection, and engagement with others through partnership conferences. Data were qualitative and focused on the ambitions, frustrations, and achievements of the participants as revealed through personal writing on a blog. Key findings of this study include: (i) the discovery of hurdles, false starts and frustrations that were common to all members of the group but hitherto had remained hidden and private; (ii) the tension between an identity as educator with a sense of responsibility to students and that of an active researcher; and (iii) issues of time and work balance between teaching and researching.

 

‘Research and the Self’ in Biggs, M. and Karlsson, H. (eds.)  Routledge Companion to Research in the Arts Routledge, (with examples written by Tony  Gemmell, Nettie Scriven, Peter Rumney, Irinya Kuksa,  Sara Giddens, and Simon Jones)  2010

This chapter considers the role of the self in research. It argues that arts-based practice-based research needs to address the issue of the self of the researcher.  It shows the significance of self within the processes and in its outcomes, whether these are propositions, descriptions, explanations, theories, artefacts, changed practices or changed understandings.  In Section 1, I present a brief overview of the theory of the self which informs the argument of the chapter. In Section 2, I outline the logic of research processes from the initial conception of a research project through to its end. Section 3 contains three examples of different kinds of on-going, arts-based, practice-based research which are used to ground the subsequent discussion of how the self enters into arts-based research, and the implications of this for researchers. Section 4 draws on the examples in Section 3 to provide an overview of the intersections of self and research. Section 5 addresses criticisms sometimes levelled at arts-based, practice based research focused on its partiality. The final section concludes with some remarks about the significance of acknowledging the place of the self in research.

 

The Nottingham apprenticeship model: schools in partnership with artists and creative practitioners British Educational Research Journal, (with Felicity Woolf) 35 (4) 2009

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/the-nottingham-apprenticeship-model-schools-in-partnership-with-artists-and-creative-practitioners(519c8b93-e0a3-41f9-99ea-f9dcd694ac22).html

This article documents the collaborative research and development of an apprenticeship model of learning for the arts.  It focuses on teachers working in partnership with practitioners in the arts (visual arts, dance, music, drama, etc.).  The model was developed over two years in a three-stage qualitative research programme, each stage drawing on the outcomes of previous ones.  The research aimed to (1) establish if the model was generally appropriate, adjusting it as necessary, (2) explore the impact on learning, and (3) assess if it enhanced schools’ capacity to provide education in the arts.  In its final form, the model was found to be useful as a guide to the organisation of children’s learning in the arts.  There was some evidence that it facilitated progression in children's learning, beyond observation and guided participation towards independence.  The model was also useful in supporting the learning of adults, including the personal, professional development of teachers, thus enhancing the capacity of their schools to provide education in the arts.

 

‘Personal narratives and policy: never the twain?’ in Bridges, D., Smeyers, P. and Smith, R. (eds) Evidence-based Education Policy Wiley  (with Gale Macleod) 2009

Also in JOPE: http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/personal-narratives-and-policy-never-the-twain(734cd23e-f618-43d4-a698-e3b4dee3b3af).html

In this article the extent to which stories and personal narratives can and should be used to inform education policy is examined. A range of studies describable as story or personal narrative is investigated. They include life-studies, life-writing, life history, narrative analysis, and the representation of lives. We use ‘auto/biography’ as a convenient way of grouping this range under one term. It points to the many and varied ways that accounts of self interrelate and intertwine with accounts of others. That is, auto/biography illuminates the social context of individual lives. At the same time it allows room for unique, personal stories to be told. We do not explicitly discuss all the different forms of auto/biography. Rather, we investigate the epistemology underlying the personal story in the context of social action. We discuss the circumstances in which a story may validly be used by educational policy makers and give some examples of how they have done so in the past.

 

‘Faces and Spaces and Doing Research’ in Tidwell, D.L., Heston, M.L. and Fitzgerald, L.M. (eds) Research Methods for the Self-Study of Practice, Springer (with Heather Malcolm and Zoe Williamson) 111-118  2009

 

‘Action research for/as/mindful of social justice’ in Bridget Somekh and Susan Noffke (eds.) Handbook of Educational Action Research, Sage, 85-98  2009

This chapter examines and explores the potential of action research to enhance social justice in education. It discusses different approaches and practices within the field of education in relation to epistemologies and principles underlying research for social justice. Implicit in many characterizations of action research is the potential to work for justice – in small-scale projects or for larger social and educational ends. At the same time, disquiet has been expressed by many action researchers about the co-option of action research for merely instrumental ends, or for purposes of social control rather than of social justice. The chapter addresses the question: when and how far is action research coherent with aims for social justice?

 

‘Using personal narrative and other stories in educational research: Issues of validity and truthfulness’  (Key note address)  Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Educational Research for Development, Addis Ababa University, May,  pp. 67-84 2009

In this paper I argue that stories are essential in educational research, for policy and improving practice, including in (indeed especially in) those parts of the world which are not self-defined as ‘the West’. I also argue that it is essential that educational researchers are clear about the difference between the use of stories as research and their use as anecdote, rhetoric or journalism. Or, in the case of stories in other modes, researchers are clear about the difference between the use of songs, dances or visual arts as research and their use in performances or exhibitions.  These ideas were developed for the First International Conference on Educational Research for Development, which was organised and held in Addis Ababa. The argument addresses a central aim of the conference: to create a global discussion forum on the roles of research for policy and for improving practice. The paper is predicated on the assumption that discussion is meaningful when the participants acknowledge differences and explore where useful similarities occur. Mindful of this, the paper focuses on issues of research methodology that are relevant globally, but grounds them in some specific contexts to be found in sub-Saharan Africa and in the Arab region, as well as in the continents of Europe and North America. This argument itself points to the significance of contextual as opposed to generalizable knowledge. The argument also points to the significance of positionality in research, and it is therefore important to acknowledge that I, the author, live and work in the UK and that this will influence and constrain my perspectives and understanding.

 

‘Critical Approaches in qualitative educational research.’ On-line at http://www.strath.ac.uk/aer/materials/7criticalapproachesinqualitativeeducationalresearch/ 2009

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/files/15324325/Critical_Approaches_in_Qualitative_Educational_Research.pdf 2009

These webpages are designed to engage researchers with issues of critical research design and data analysis in a range of educational contexts. ‘Critical research’ is not a tidy category. In these pages it is taken to mean, roughly, research which aims at understanding, uncovering, illuminating, and/or transforming how educational aims, dilemmas, tensions and hopes are related to social divisions and power differentials. Research in this area entails paying attention to fundamental issues of epistemology, truth, validity, perspective and justice. While researchers agree as to the relevance of these issues, they disagree about how they relate to power and social context. These pages provide an introduction to this complex area. Each webpage includes a brief introductory section, usually followed by further explanation of key concepts. Further guidance is provided in the form of references, including, where available, full texts of articles as pdfs or Word documents. In the references, preference has been given to downloadable web documents and to Journal articles, in the belief that these are more widely accessible to educational researchers than other sources. The webpages are listed in alphabetical order, because the issues are interrelated. The order in which they are used will depend on the particular needs and interests of the person referring to them.

 

Personal narratives and policy: never the twain? Journal of Philosophy of Education 42 (s1). (with Gale Macleod) 2008

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/personal-narratives-and-policy-never-the-twain(734cd23e-f618-43d4-a698-e3b4dee3b3af).html

In this article the extent to which stories and personal narratives can and should be used to inform education policy is examined. A range of studies describable as story or personal narrative is investigated. They include life-studies, life-writing, life history, narrative analysis, and the representation of lives. We use ‘auto/biography’ as a convenient way of grouping this range under one term. It points to the many and varied ways that accounts of self interrelate and intertwine with accounts of others. That is, auto/biography illuminates the social context of individual lives. At the same time it allows room for unique, personal stories to be told. We do not explicitly discuss all the different forms of auto/biography. Rather, we investigate the epistemology underlying the personal story in the context of social action. We discuss the circumstances in which a story may validly be used by educational policy makers and give some examples of how they have done so in the past.

 

What kind of research evidence should our leaders use? Scottish Educational Review, 40 (1) 2008

http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/what-kind-of-research-evidence-should-our-leaders-use(652b312f-082d-4ff1-a5e5-727f37c593eb).html

I start with general observations about leadership and about practical knowledge, going to anchor these general observations in particular examples before drawing some conclusions about the proper conduct of educational research. I discuss how the concept of leadership is anchored in ethical and political commitments and judgements. Against this background I consider the current calls for evidenced informed or research-informed policy, questioning what sort of ‘evidence’ or ‘research’ is wanted or needed. I argue that some recent moves to valorise so-called value-free, factual, certain and universal empirical research are misguided. The argument is made by drawing on epistemologies of the unique and the particular, and by presenting evidence that policy makers can, and do, draw on educational research that uses unique, particular, and context-bound stories.

 

‘Public space, participation and expressive arts’ in Bob Lingard, Jon Nixon and Stewart Ransom (eds.) Transforming Learning, Continuum (with Hamish Ross) 2008

This chapter explores if and how the arts can contribute to enabling young people to participate in public spaces and so to improve their chances of contributing to democratic process as adults. It draws on previously reported research in three Nottingham schools (Griffiths, Berry, Holt, Naylor and Weekes, 2006), which argued that: (1) arts-based work in school has helped disadvantaged and/or disaffected children to engage in activities (both arts-based and others); and (2) to be able to lay the ground work for exercising voice and agency as they did so. (3) A further suggestion was made that such an exercise of voice and agency might enable children to learn how to participate in public spaces, and contribute to deepening democracy in their communities. This chapter draws on philosophical discussion and empirical evidence in order to explore the link between (2) and (3):  how schools might educate young people to engage with civic society and to take a full part in its democratic processes.  It argues that the arts based work creates particular kinds of public spaces in school, and goes on to explore the relation of such public spaces to the public spaces needed in adult life if social justice is to flourish. The formulation of this argument depends on a specific understanding of the term ‘public space’, one which is highly dependent on Hannah Arendt’s discussion of the term.

 

‘Teasing out terminology. Paradigms, epistemologies, methodologies and all that.’ Invited Keynote at Aberdeen University Educational Research day. (powerpoint) 2008

 

‘The Mindful Passions of Teacher Education.’ Keynote address at the first Scottish Teacher Education Conference, Glasgow (powerpoint) 2008.

 

‘action research’, ‘epistemology’, ‘gender’, ‘inclusion’, ‘ontology’, ‘research’, ‘social justice’.  Entries in Susan Wallace (ed) The Oxford Dictionary of Education, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

Girls’ Schooldays in Ruddington Remembered  Ruddington, Nottinghamshire: Ruddington Village Museum (with Peter Bowbrick) 2007

This book, and its companion volume, Boys’ schooldays in Ruddington, provide a vivid picture of being a schoolchild in Ruddington, a village near Nottingham, from early in the twentieth century to the 1960s and 70s. The oldest ex-pupils are in their early 90s. The youngest are still in their 40s. Over 40 men and women were interviewed (22 men and 20 women). Their stories bring past times to life. In the years after the First World War, the girls walked to Shaw Street to learn to boil and starch the washing -- mainly handkerchiefs! There was a garden for the boys during the Second World War where they grew vegetables and kept rabbits. Milk was a halfpenny a bottle (0.2p) and both boys and girls were knitting scarves and balaclavas for the troops. Others had memories of the cold baths at Highfields and the terrors of the Eleven Plus.   The two books provide a colourful picture of how national educational changes were experienced locally. For instance, we hear how curriculum changes placed new demands on schools. Cookery lessons used to be all-day affairs for the girls. Boys used to be taken out of school by local farmers to pick potatoes. All that had gone by the 1960s. There were changes too in out-of-school activities. Television arrived, and transport to Nottingham became easier. During the second world war children were taught in the Chapel as well as in their classrooms, as the village accommodated evacuees from Nottingham and Birmingham.

 

Boys’ Schooldays in Ruddington Remembered Ruddington, Nottinghamshire: Ruddington Village Museum (with Peter Bowbrick) 2007

This book, and its companion volume, Girls’ schooldays in Ruddington, provide a vivid picture of being a schoolchild in Ruddington, a village near Nottingham, from early in the twentieth century to the 1960s and 70s. The oldest ex-pupils are in their early 90s. The youngest are still in their 40s. Over 40 men and women were interviewed (22 men and 20 women). Their stories bring past times to life. In the years after the First World War, the girls walked to Shaw Street to learn to boil and starch the washing -- mainly handkerchiefs! There was a garden for the boys during the Second World War where they grew vegetables and kept rabbits. Milk was a halfpenny a bottle (0.2p) and both boys and girls were knitting scarves and balaclavas for the troops. Others had memories of the cold baths at Highfields and the terrors of the Eleven Plus.   The two books provide a colourful picture of how national educational changes were experienced locally. For instance, we hear how curriculum changes placed new demands on schools. Cookery lessons used to be all-day affairs for the girls. Boys used to be taken out of school by local farmers to pick potatoes. All that had gone by the 1960s. There were changes too in out-of-school activities. Television arrived, and transport to Nottingham became easier. During the second world war children were taught in the Chapel as well as in their classrooms, as the village accommodated evacuees from Nottingham and Birmingham.

 

Action research, stories and practical philosophy Educational Action Research, (with Tony Cotton) 15 (4) 2007

This paper explores the use of practical philosophy in action research. It describes what ‘practical philosophy’ is and how it makes a connection between ‘theory’ and ‘practice’ – while never losing hold of either. It begins from the understanding that philosophy is rooted in social practices with philosophy in educational practices rooted in educational practice. The paper goes on to explore the use of stories as a way into the diversity of significant particularities. Finally the links are made between practical philosophy, stories and the notion of action research. The theme of social justice permeates.  It is an example of a theory-practice connection, and also it provides the underlying rationale for the approach. 

 

‘Being Naughty to be Good: Playing at/as being Authentic’ in Deborah Orr, Dianna Taylor, Eileen Kahl, Kathleen Earle, Christa Rainwater, and Linda López McAlister (eds.) Feminist Politics, Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007

To be authentic is to be true to oneself in how one conducts oneself. Thus authenticity – being authentic – is a serious business: a matter of high moral purpose and integrity. It is lucky for those of us who aspire to seriousness and high moral purpose, but who do not want to be stuck with solemnity and earnestness, that the achievement (and continued re-achievement) of authenticity can be found in playfulness. This is the suggestion made in this chapter. In this article I explore how a non-unitary self may come to authenticity. I begin by outline some different ontologies of self in order to trace how they each relate to the idea of authenticity. Using a model of a patchwork self, I then go on to look at autobiographical narratives of changed, and how the themes of continuity and connection shed light on the achievement of ‘authenticity’. I use some suggestions from Maria Lugones (1989) about possible links between playfulness and the changing self to argue that playfulness, especially naughty playfulness is helpful in coming to authenticity. I end by giving some examples using Fatima Mernissi’s Dreams of Trespass.

 

‘The nature of knowledge and lifelong learning' in David Aspin (ed.) Philosophical Perspectives on Lifelong Learning, Springer Press (with Jean Barr) 2007

This chapter starts from the position that lifelong learning is more than is assumed in current policy rhetoric.  This rhetoric focuses on training for a ‘knowledge economy’ in which all citizens play their part.  We argue that this rhetoric depends on a view of knowledge as instrumental, individual and disembodied.  Drawing on Aristotle's analysis, we point out that this is a partial view which only perceives techne.  Treating techne as the whole of knowledge is pernicious leading to a kind of 'commonsense' economism, which contributes to perpetuating an oppressive world economic system.  Against this we propose a richer, more democratic understanding of lifelong learning in which praxis (as well as techne) is recognised and honoured.  The particular form of praxis on which we focus is the knowledge and wisdom that must be learnt if human beings are to learn to live together politically in a world marked by plurality and global injustice. Throughout, examples are drawn from museum and art education, from a local community educational initiative and from current global social movements for new forms of democracy.

 

‘Learning to be in public spaces: in from the margins with dancers, sculptors, painters and musicians' in Chris Gaine, Ghazala Bhatti, Yvonne Leeman and Francesca Gobbo (eds.) Social Justice and Intercultural Education: an Open-Ended Dialogue, Trentham (with Judy Berry, Anne Holt, John Naylor and Philippa Weekes) 2007

The chapter explores one way in which the arts can work for social justice in schools. It argues that arts-based work in school has helped disadvantaged and/or disaffected children to engage in activities, both arts-based and others -- and to be able to grow in the exercise of voice and agency as they did so.  The artists may include dancers, filmmakers, installation artists, landscape artists, sculptors, musicians, painters, potters, storytellers and others.  The chapter has been produced by a university-based researcher working in partnership with teacher-researchers.  It evolved during a research project developing a model for learning in the arts.  The project related to work in Creative Partnerships, a national government initiative to encourage creativity and learning.[1]  The authors of the chapter are as follows.  Judy Berry is the head of Rufford Infant  (ages 3-7). Anne Holt is a teacher in the same school.  John Naylor teaches in Shepherd, a special school for children of all ages with severe and profound learning difficulties. Philippa Weekes is the deputy head of Seagrave Primary (ages 3-11). An action research project was carried out in each of these schools.  Morwenna Griffiths is a university professor.  She acted as a critical friend and adviser for each of the school-based projects.  As the academic in a partnership in which each person contributed their particular skills and knowledge, she also put this chapter together.  It draws on research reports by John and Philippa and on a leaflet produced with Rufford School at the end of the project. 

 

‘Educational study and its contribution to a just social order: practices, diversity and a democratic intellect’ Paper given in Pádraig Hogan, Wilfred Carr and Morwenna Griffiths Symposium on The Study of Education, Philosophy of Education Society Annual Conference, Oxford 2007

This contribution addresses a practical problem: What should those of us employed in University Departments of Education[2] be doing? I take it that we are studying classroom education[3].  But we are not studying our own practice; we are at a remove from the schools and classrooms where that practice is found. So what is our relation to it?  In attempting to resolve the problem, I adopt and assume the stance argued for in the other two contributions: that the study of classroom education is first and foremost the study of a human practice or a constellation of practices.   I begin by arguing for a particular conceptualisation of practice drawing on social learning theory and feminist philosophy.  I go on to consider the significance of this conceptualisation for developing practice.  Focusing particularly on the work of University Departments, I discuss the place of explicit and implicit knowledge in developing practice, drawing on the notion of a 'democratic professional intellect' to do so.  Finally I consider the implications of this approach in relation to the aims of education more broadly.

 

Learning to be in public spaces: in from the margins with dancers, sculptors, painters and musicians British Journal of Educational Studies (Special Issue on Social Justice) (with Judy Berry, Anne Holt, John Naylor and Philippa Weekes) 54 (3) 2006

The paper explores how the arts can work for social justice in schools. In particular it explores the way that arts-based work in school has helped disadvantaged and/or disaffected children to engage in activities (both arts-based and others), and to be able to become increasingly autonomous as they did so. The research focuses on the existing school ethos, forms of learning, and the effect of having creative practitioners (including dancers, sculptors, installation artists, video makers, etc) working alongside teachers in school. It contributes to the growing literature in Europe, American and Australia on the role of the arts in education  for social justice and inclusion (Council of Europe, 2004; Greene, 1995; Thomson, 2003). The research focuses on three schools in the Nottingham Creative Partnership, one of 16 partnerships funded nationally through a £40 million Creative Partnerships Government initiative which had an overall aim to create new ways of including disadvantaged young people of school age in the cultural life of their communities. In Nottingham, 23 schools participate, including nursery, primary, secondary and special schools.  Action research was carried out in seven of these schools, exploring learning by pupils, teachers and artists during the programme (Griffiths and Woolf, 2004).

 

The feminisation of teaching and the practice of teaching: threat or opportunity?  Educational Theory 56(4) Fall 2006  

This article considers the effect of feminization on the practices of education.  It outlines a feminist theory of practice, which draws on mainstream theories but also points up the gaps in it. It draws on theories of embodiment, diversity and structures of power to show that any practice is properly seen as fluid, leaky and viscous. It goes on to show that there are different and competing understandings of “feminization” as referring either to the numbers of women in teaching or to a culture associated with women - and that the widespread concern about the increase in numbers of women teachers is misplaced. The cultural question is complicated because while gender differences are not binary, only masculinity has a hegemonic form. Current feminised practices are formed in resistance to hegemonic practice. Hegemonic masculinity is a problem for practice because it drives out diversity. In general, the leaky, viscous practices of teaching would benefit from the increase in diversity and decrease in social stratification which feminization brings to the profession.

 

“That’s what I am here for”:  Images of working lives of academic and support staff’ in D. Tidwell, M. Heston and L. Fitzgerald (eds.) Self-study and Diversity New York: Springer (with Joseph Windle and Margaret Simms) 2006

The study confronts the often hidden power relations which underpin everyday relationships and practices within institutions of education, in this case, teacher education. The authors have collaborated in carrying out a self-study of their complementary roles within the Research Unit of a university Faculty of Education. One of the authors, Morwenna Griffiths (Mo), was the head of the unit. Another author, Joseph Windle (Joe), was the administrator. The third author, Margaret Simms (Margaret, Mag, Margo), who is one of the research students in the Faculty, was a temporary replacement for Joseph when he was promoted to a different post. The self-study uses visual methods in iterative phases. It took place over eight months (January-August, 2004). In phase 1, Morwenna and Joseph took digital photographs of their working lives over a period of a month. These photographs were analyzed and arranged to create a visual representation of their working lives. In phase 2, this process was repeated, with the help of colleagues. In phase 3, Joseph started a new job elsewhere, and his place was taken by Margaret. More visual evidence was collected by Morwenna and Margaret, and was analyzed. The material has been presented at three international conferences and was a powerful impetus to the thinking and reflection of the audiences about their own contexts and the power relations within them.

 

‘Educational researchers doing research on educational policy: Heroes, puppets, partners, or…?’ Paper presented to the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, Warwick 2006 in the symposium: Commissioned educational research as realpolitik: Voices and experiences from the field 2006  

It is argued that it is essential for researchers to understand their relationship with policy makers if they are to act with what Aristotle identified as phronesis or practical wisdom (Aristotle, 1980). In order to do this, it is necessary to reflect on experience. It is further argued that the representation of that experience is itself at issue. Practical knowledge is not only situated and contextual. It is also provisional, perspectival and dependent on the form of the narrative (Stronach and MacLure, 1997).  The discussion takes as its starting point a series of articles that have appeared in recent issues of the British Educational Research Journal (Brown et al, 2003; Torrance, 2003; Beard, 2003; Wyse, 2003; Lather, 2004; Saunders, 2005). The stories of research told in these articles are also stories of the researchers’ identities: identities with strong value positions attached. In some accounts researchers appear as equal partners with policy makers.  In others they struggle against becoming mere tools of the system, browbeaten by the powerful funders.  Sometimes they are heroes -- maybe tragic heroes -- defending their principles against the odds. This presentation tells contrasting insider stories of an evaluation carried out for the DfES of the Intensifying Support Project. It will focus particularly on the final  part of the evaluation, completed in 2006. 

 

‘Defining workspaces, defining ourselves’ Fifth International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex, July  (with Dina Poursanidou, Margaret Simms and Joseph Windle) pp.208-289  2006

The broad focus for the research is everyday social justice in the workplace – or lack of it. The particular focus is on workspace in the academy. The research investigates how we act on, within, in spite of, and because of, the spaces in which we work. Workspaces give powerful messages to every member of an institution, including its students about values and persons. At the start of the research we assumed a three-dimensional space that can be photographed. However other space included: social space, spaces of resistance, public space thinking space, and creative space. The research method was cyclical and iterative. During each cycle data was gathered and analysed. The next cycle was then planned in the light of the previous one. In phase one each researcher took photos of their workspaces, and also, for the sake of comparison, their home space. In phase two each researcher made short comments on all the pictures, their own and those of others. These were exchanged and then discussed in a recorded conversation. As a result more pictures were taken and circulated. Pictures were taken of people working on the campus, whose roles included all the different statuses, including professors, research fellows, administrators, library staff, cleaners and canteen servers. The paper was presented in an interactive exhibition. The subjects of the photos were assured that their images would not be reproduced beyond the hard copies of the exhibition lest they be compromised by them, especially in case were spaces of resistance were evident.

 

A self-study of collaborations among teacher educators (with Dina Poursanidou) Studying Teacher Education 1 (2) 2005

This paper describes a self-study of two collaborations. The first collaboration focused on an attempt to research the teaching of social justice issues to pre-service student teachers. The second collaboration was an attempt to understand why the first collaboration was only partially successful. The study charts the process of collaboration over two years. The methodology is highly reflective, depending primarily on sources that were seen as being significant in retrospect rather than collected with a sense of purpose. Use is made of emails, conversations noted at the time or remembered, notes made of discussions at conference presentations and reflective journal entries. Conclusions are drawn with significance beyond this self-study. They include clarification of the nature of collaboration and the parts played by the role and personality of the collaborators, factors that need to be taken into account for success, reasons for collaboration, and the importance of focusing on the self who is inviting or persuading others to collaborate rather than on anyone else. The paper is presented as a narrative in dialogic form, and demonstrates the development of understanding over the period of the self-study. It also illustrates the development of one kind of collaboration between congenial colleagues.

 

Evaluation Of The Intensifying Support Pilot Report for The Primary National Strategy, Department of Education and Skills (with Tony Cotton and Peter Bowbrick) www.ntu.ac.uk/research/schoolofeducation/ISP/  Published 2005

The Intensifying Support Pilot (ISP) was designed to offer a package of support and professional development to schools that have low achievement (as measured by National Curriculum tests) in literacy and mathematics. One of the criteria recommended for selecting schools to be involved in the pilot was that schools should have made little progress in raising standards since the introduction of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies.  Professor Morwenna Griffiths, Dr Tony Cotton and Dr Peter Bowbrick from Nottingham Trent University conducted the external evaluation of the pilot. The evaluation took the form of in-depth interviews and observational visits carried out in 7 LEAs, supplemented by telephone interviews in a further 4. A second strand was an analysis of existing numerical data and statistics pertaining to National Curriculum tests. This data took the form of a six or seven year series and was analysed against a control group. A third strand was provided by data from a questionnaire, which was sent to all head teachers and consultants involved in the project. An excellent response rate of 89% from head teachers and 67% from consultants enabled the team to triangulate interview data obtained from the in-depth interviews.

 

‘A feminist perspective on communities of practice’ Socio-cultural Theory in Educational Research and Practice, Manchester, September, 2005

I argue that feminist theory is relevant in the understanding of the practices of education, focusing particularly on learning communities of practice. I start by outlining a view of practices of learning and teaching within education, drawing on both philosophical and social learning theories (especially Collins, Brown and Holum, 1991, Lave and Wenger, 1991, Smith, 1999, Burbules and Smeyers, 2002,).  I then seek to improve on this view by presenting a critique of it from a feminist perspective. In doing so I draw particularly on feminist philosophy, especially Fraser (1997), Battersby (1998), Young (2000), Greene and Griffiths (2003), and Le Doeuff (2003). The initial view is thus modified into a sketch of a feminist theory of practice. It makes use of theories of embodiment, diversity and structures of power. Firstly, I argue that any practice is properly seen as fluid, leaky and viscous. Secondly, I argue that any practice benefits from recognising diversity among its members, because such recognition encourages the acknowledgement of different models of expertise. Finally, I argue that the effects of socio-political structures on the practice need to be taken explicitly into account or else they bias perceptions of expertise by creating a kind of ‘illegitimate peripheral participation’ which is likely to be pernicious especially given the ubiquity of hegemonic masculinity. There are consequences for the organisation and development of learning communities of practice.  For simplicity I focus on the practices of teaching, but many other examples could be chosen.

 

 ‘Knowledge, social justice, and self-study’ in J. Loughran, M.L. Hamilton, V. LaBoskey and T. Russell (eds.) International Handbook of Self-Study of Teaching and Teacher Education Practices New York: Kluwer (I am lead author, in dialogue with Lis Bass, Marilyn Johnston and Victoria Perselli) 2004

This chapter addresses the issue of professional knowledge and social justice. It is presented in dialogic form, as a conversation in four voices. The conversation is interspersed with four case-studies, each one written by one of the authors. The case-studies illuminate, exemplify and resist the arguments within the conversation about self-study, social justice, and epistemology. The paper is divided into four broad sections. The first, “Social Justice and Self-Study”, looks directly at the links between social justice and self-study. It begins by considering the resistances and difficulties inherent in addressing social justice issues, and continues by seeking a definition for social justice. The second, “What Kind of Knowledge?”, looks directly at the nature of knowledge that is gained in self-study that is rooted in a concern for social justice. From a starting point of knowing ourselves as tellers of stories, it goes on to address ways of telling and listening to stories across divisive social boundaries and hierarchies. The third section, “Professional Knowledge” introduces the idea of “little stories and grand narrative,” exploring ways in which professional knowledge might be understood as “little stories” countering, disrupting, critical of and contributing to “grand narratives” of educational knowledge. The fourth section addresses the urgent and difficult question, “Why is There so Little Self-Study on Social Justice Issues?” 

 

‘Training the imagination to “go visiting”‘ in M. Walker and J. Nixon (eds.) Reclaiming Universities from a Runaway World Buckingham, Open University Press  (with Jean Barr) 2004

http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/3421/

Our paper explores a neglected area of epistemology: knowing people. It suggests that we take a critical perspective on the metaphors we live and then re-configure them to think again about the public and private spaces in the universities where we work. It explores, in the context of university education, the nature of a public space that can accommodate and reconstruct ‘public knowledge’. We understand ‘public space’ to be a social space of interaction, rather than a location in physical or cyber space (though it may be that too). We understand ‘public knowledge’ to be that knowledge which is articulated and/or expressed by all, including those people who are routinely excluded from traditional public spaces. People require public spaces in which they can discover, construct, develop and reinterpret knowledge of various kinds, and, in some cases, use the knowledge to help resolve practical problems they face. The nature of these spaces is changing as society (including its schools and universities) evolves. We point out that the traditional theoretical frameworks of political philosophy are unable to deal with the complexity of social space in today’s society. They depend heavily on the notion of the public ‘forum’ (or sphere), that is a space available to all citizens – accessible to them and usable by them. This notion is inadequate even within the limited context of Higher Education and its communities. In criticising traditional frameworks we draw on feminist and other writings which move on from critique to the more positive project of reconstructing knowledge and pedagogy. We use real examples, not just as illustrations of or argument but as concrete embodiments of our case and in order to encourage less confining frameworks, processes and metaphors for organising our work in Higher Education. The examples are drawn from our own experiences. They are offered both as reasons for hope and as aids to the imagination. They point, too, towards greater risk-taking than is encouraged in the current atmosphere of university teaching and research.

 

Report on Creative Partnerships Nottingham Action Research for Creative Partnerships Nottingham (with Felicity Woolf) 2004

www.ntu.ac.uk/research/schoolofeducation/Creative-Partnerships/  Published

The research explored and developed an apprenticeship model of the learning which takes place in creative projects when creative practitioners work alongside teachers in school.  Working closely with schools, the researchers investigated the appropriateness of the model, its impact on learning and its use in helping schools develop sustainable links with the creative sector which support pupils and their teachers in the continuing development of excellent arts, creative and cultural education.  The research was in three overlapping stages.  The researchers began by visiting all 23 schools in Creative Partnerships Nottingham, where they interviewed headteachers, teachers, pupils, parents, creative development workers and artists/creatives.  A conference was held for all participants to report and discuss the results of the research, which led to the modification of the initial model.  In the second stage, seven case study schools undertook action research on the impact of learning of the now modified model for all participants in the programme. In the third stage the researchers again visited all the schools and interviewed headteachers, teachers, pupils, parents, creative development workers and artists/creatives.

 

Learning to be in public spaces: using a new model for working with artists in school’ Paper presented to ‘Creative Learning Communities’ in the ESRC Seminar Series Creativity in Education and Knowledge and Skills for Learning to Learn. Newcastle University 2004

The paper explores how the arts can work for social justice in schools. In particular it explores the way that using an apprenticeship model of learning in arts-based work in school has helped disadvantaged and/or disaffected children to engage in activities (both arts-based and others), and to be able to become increasingly autonomous as they did so. It is argued: (1) This can constitute an example of ‘children learning to be in public spaces’, and (2) Such learning is a step towards doing social justice in schools.

 

 ‘Collaboration and self-study in relation to teaching social justice issues to beginning teachers’ Fifth International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex, July  (with Dina Poursanidou) pp. 129-133  2004

This self-study is an investigation into the teaching of inclusion, equality and social justice to all the fourth year students during their final half year at university before they become teachers. The effects of learning more about inclusion and injustice are hard to ascertain. The kind of knowledge gained is wisdom and understanding rather than information so it cannot be easily measured. Moreover it is notoriously difficult to measure attitude changes. The study confronted further problems that have proved difficult in previous research and which continued to prove difficult in this one: (1) how, methodologically, to investigate the effects on the students of teaching for justice and (2) how to work collaboratively with colleagues in investigating our own collusions and resistances with respect to injustice.

 

‘Academic and support staff: Images of three working lives in teacher education’ Fifth International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex, July (with Joseph Windle and Margaret Simms) 270-272 2004

The study confronts the often hidden power relations which underpin everyday relationships and practices within institutions of education, in this case, teacher education. The authors have collaborated in carrying out a self-study of their complementary roles within the Research Unit of a university Faculty of Education. One of the authors, Morwenna Griffiths (Mo), was the head of the unit. Another author, Joseph Windle (Joe), was the administrator. The third author, Margaret Simms (Margaret, Mag, Margo), who is one of the research students in the Faculty, was a temporary replacement for Joseph when he was promoted to a different post. The self-study uses visual methods in iterative phases. It took place over eight months (January-August, 2004). In phase 1, Morwenna and Joseph took digital photographs of their working lives over a period of a month. These photographs were analyzed and arranged to create a visual representation of their working lives. In phase 2, this process was repeated, with the help of colleagues. In phase 3, Joseph started a new job elsewhere, and his place was taken by Margaret. More visual evidence was collected by Morwenna and Margaret, and was analyzed. The material has been presented at three international conferences and was a powerful impetus to the thinking and reflection of the audiences about their own contexts and the power relations within them.

 

Action for Social Justice in Education: Fairly Different Buckingham: Open University Press 2003

This book takes the view that ‘social justice is a verb’, always action oriented, always unfinished. It is about action for social justice, particularly in educational contexts. It pays attention to the real complexity of the issues while at the same time suggesting strategies and principles for action. It addresses the tensions between wanting equality at the same time as acknowledging difference: getting a fair deal for all. Many different people have contributed stories and ideas to the book so it has been enriched by their different voices and points of view. In Part 1 complex theories of difference, equality, recognition, and redistribution are made accessible. Theoretical sections are interwoven with fascinating personal accounts of education experiences, told by individuals coming from a range of social, economic, educational and ethnic backgrounds. Part 2 focuses on self-esteem, empowerment, partnership and action in schools. Each chapter includes stories of hope from real schools. Key questions addressed are: (1) How should we best live with the lovely diversity of human beings? (2) How can education best benefit all individuals and also society as a whole? (3) What action can be taken for social justice in real schools and colleges?

"Once again Morwenna Griffiths has produced a book on an important topic that speaks to theorists and practitioners alike. Read it.” Professor Alison Assiter, University of the West of England, Bristol.
“This is a must read for anyone who wants to be provoked and supported toward action and change in education.” Professor Marilyn Johnston, College of Education, Ohio State University, USA.

 

‘Feminism, philosophy and education: imagining public spaces’ in N. Blake, P. Smeyers, R. Smith and P. Standish (eds.) The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Education Oxford: Basil Blackwell  (with Maxine Greene) 2003

 

The implications for student self-esteem of ordinary differences in different schools: the cases of Malta and England British Educational Research Journal 28 (4) (with Deborah Chetcuti) 2002

This article explores self-esteem and its relationship with achievement and difference. It is written as an ongoing narrative between the two authors, who through their autobiographical conversations try to come to terms with the effects of ordinary (i.e. unexceptional, non-deviant) differences on self-esteem. Through a critical analysis of their own experiences as students, teachers and academics, the authors try to explore how differences are discursively constructed and how they might be reconstructed. The article is in three parts. It starts with an analytic enquiry of the construction of individual self-esteem. The authors argue that current orthodoxy about self-esteem is oversimplified because it focuses on an individual’s response to personal achievement and to face-to-face social relationships. It is argued that the story must be much more complex and include issues of social justice. The second part uses qualitative data from Malta and England and autobiographical data in order to explore the relationship between self-esteem and the achievements and aspirations of students. The third and final part uses these results to construct a concept of ‘ordinary difference’ which celebrates individual and socio-political differences rather than tries to standardise them.

 

‘Principles of social justice in educational research: the case of contract research’ The School Field X (1/2) 2002

The concern of this paper is for social justice in education - and in the educational research which informs, shakes and moves it. It does not advocate an impossible purity of motive or action. Rather it is a search for principled ways that an educational researcher can act, in the circumstances in which she finds herself. She - I, you, we - may not approve those circumstances. It is all the more important to find ways to act within them while also finding ways to change them. Nowhere is this clearer than in the case of contract research - especially, these days, small-scale contract research which is on the rise with the increasing commodification of academic work (Norris, 1995; Stronach, Allan and Morris, 1996; Brown, 1998). This trend is particularly marked in the Anglo-Saxon world, but it is also becoming an issue throughout Europe (Elliott, 1998) as predicted decades ago by Lyotard (1984).

 

‘“Nothing grand”: small tales and working for social justice’ in J. Loughran and T. Russell (eds.) Reframing Teacher Education Practices: Exploring meaning through self-study Falmer Press 2002

           

‘Questions of personal autonomy’ in K.W.M. Fulford, D.L. Dickenson and T.M. Murray (eds.) The Blackwell Reader in Healthcare Ethics Oxford: Basil Blackwell 2002

I use the experience of women to investigate the concept of autonomy by looking at how it enters both into gender stereotypes and into mainstream philosophy. I consider how autonomy and independence appear in the subjective experience of women and in the way they live their lives. In doing so I develop an alternative model of autonomy which fits the experience of both women and men. Further, I argue that women have been asserting their autonomy and acting on these assertions. I then go on to suggest reasons why, in spite of such assertions, so many of us are still in positions where it is hard to act. The reasons are to do with the structures of violence which support masculine ways of understanding, and which constrain the possibilities of self-creation for both men and women.

 

Helping teacher educators learn to research: bread and roses – and a phoenix’ Fourth International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex August (with Joseph Windle) pp.87-91 2002

The self-study is an investigation of our two complementary roles within the informal education of teacher educators as (better) researchers. We work closely together in the Faculty of Education Research Unit, one of us as professor of educational research and the other as research administrator. For both of us the job combines the relatively humdrum but essential tasks of administration and budget balancing (bread) with a human, principled, personal engagement with individual researchers and their projects (roses). The study is one rather than two because we are mindful that for each of us our own role is defined with and against the other’s. The data includes an outside evaluation, emails, interviews with colleagues, and a dialogue between the two of us. The intention is to clarify and develop our ideas about what we are doing and why. The import of the study has sharpened considerably since the whole Research Unit suddenly lost all its funding in December/January and its existence became threatened. Since then it has (we think) been reprieved but in a new form (the phoenix). This developing situation is now inescapably part of our study.

 

The School Field: Special Issue on Justice in/and Education (with Mitja Sardoc) 2001/2

 

Social justice for education: what kind of theory is needed? The School Field (Special Issue: Justice in/and Education) XII (1/2) 2001

The main question addressed in this paper is: ‘What is needed from a theory of social justice for education?’  In answering, I first make some remarks about its relevance and about the methodology underpinning the way I set about answering it. I argue for an approach I call ‘practical philosophy’ (Also see Elliott, 1991). I go on to give a brief review of some standard philosophical accounts of ‘social justice’. I then describe an attempt to move forward from these accounts using a process which was designed to be an instance of ‘practical philosophy’, in that it enables me to do ‘philosophy as and with’ educational researchers. Some preliminary, possible (and certainly corrigible) results are presented. Finally in order to draw some conclusions I reflect critically on how much agreement they might command, and what implications should be drawn.

 

Working Partnerships: Better Research and Learning Nottingham Trent University (with Graham Impey) 2000

The book has the following aims: (1) To put into question the easy reliance on partnership rhetoric from various arms of government, including the Teacher Training Agency and Department for Education and Employment in England and Wales, and their equivalents in other countries. (2) To tell stories of partnership between universities and schools, new and established, successful and problematic, all of them focused on better research and learning.

Chapters: Morwenna Griffiths and Graham Impey ‘Working partnerships: Better research and learning’ p.1; Philip Garner UK) Research Partnerships in Education: an uneasy relationship? p.11; Chris Blake (USA) ‘Same story, different accent: A trans-Atlantic view of partnership’ p.24; Dave Needham (UK) and Nicky Sanders (South Africa) ‘Possibilities and impossibilities in school/ business/university partnerships: The cases of UK and South Africa’ p.37; Julie Ann Kiskern (Canada) ‘The myth of the well-planned project or How research is like life: It doesn't always turn out the way you expected’ p.55;  Deborah Chetcuti (Malta) ‘Making partnership work: From passive participation to active collaboration’ p.67; Colleen McLaughlin (UK) ‘Parallel processes in learning to learn: A school/university partnership focused on developing the personal and social aspects of pedagogy’ p.82; Renee Clift, Sharon Chubbuck, Joanne Allard and Jane Quinlan (USA) ‘Partnerships are mortal: Debunking the myth of partnership as the answer for improving education’ p.97; Tony Sewell (UK) ‘Facilitating teacher and pupil action: Making PSE[1] work for African Caribbean children’ p.116; Roy Corden (UK) ‘Effective teacher-pupil interaction for closer reading-writing connections’ p.138; Douglas Williamson (UK) ‘Zone Hockey for physically disabled children: The creation of a research-based game’ p.153.

 

‘Collaboration and partnership in question: knowledge, politics and practice’ Journal of Education Policy (Special Issue: Philosophical Perspectives on Education Policy) 15 (4) 2000

The paper provides a framework from which to critique orthodox assumptions about the processes of collaboration, especially in relation to the concepts of public space and power. Key issues are: the private-public distinction and the metaphor of ‘public space’. The critique is rooted in alternatives to orthodox, Liberal humanist political perspectives in philosophy and draws on real examples of collaboration. Some of these are from my own experiences of a number of small-scale, policy-oriented research projects and evaluations, both commissioned and university-originated. Suggestions are made about implications for the genesis of a politics of connection leading to collective actions.

 

‘The academic qualities of practice: what are the criteria for a practice-based doctorate?’ Studies in Higher Education 25 (1) (With Richard Winter and Kath Green) 2000

This article explores the nature of the criteria which would be appropriate for evaluating a report on practice development submitted for a doctoral thesis – a significant issue in the various professional contexts where ‘action research’ or ,’evaluation’ is increasingly being adopted as a basis for PhD work. The practice-base of this article itself, and the urgency of the problems, are presented by means of reflections on the examination of particular cases of action research PhDs undertaken by practitioners, and reflections by one of the presenters who was herself completing a PhD at the time of writing. Illuminative data have been collected from a questionnaire to PhD examiners from a wide range of disciplines in order to establish the scope of the problem by collecting a core vocabulary of terms. The key issue examined is the relationship between the criteria derived from clearly ‘academic’ research and criteria which would be appropriate for the evaluation of practice.

 

‘The role of the education librarian in education research: A user’s perspective’ Education Libraries Journal 42 2000

This article addresses the question of the role, or more properly, roles, of the education librarian in education research. It approaches the issue from the perspective of users rather than providers, although both sets of views are included. In order to obtain the views of a number of users of education researchers into the role of an education librarian, a small survey was carried out using e-mail. The intention was to elicit a range of views from a range of institutions. The use of such a data set is to map the shape of the field of possible responses. This is interesting in itself, since from any of the positions in the field it can be difficult to see some of the others. For instance full-time research students can be oblivious to the needs of contract researchers. University lecturers have a very different point of view from free-lance researchers. In this article I begin to map the field.

 

‘ “Nothing Grand”: Small tales and working for social justice’ Third International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex August  pp.95-99  2000

This paper is a self-study of myself and some colleagues as we continue to work collaboratively towards justice in education. The paper has three main strands: (1) the main project, which is getting better at working collaboratively for social justice (2) the idea of ‘small tales’ and the place they have in that project (3) being critical and reflective about both. The form of the main paper is linear, but part of its argument is that neither life nor thought is as tidy and linear as it is presented in the form so popular in academic presentations. The version of this paper found in J. Loughran and T. Russell (eds.) Reframing Teacher Education Practices: Exploring meaning through self-study Falmer Press 2002 has footnotes providing – and disrupting -  the rest of the story and are much longer than the paper itself. The self-study is drawn from transcripts of conversations with teacher and lecturer colleagues about an on-going social justice project. Conclusions are drawn about self-study, the self and how to study it, and about the idea of ‘small tales’.

 

‘Playing at/as being authentic’ in J. Swift (ed.) Art Education Discourses: Leaf and Seed Birmingham:  ARTicle Press 1999

 

‘Aiming for a fair education: what use is philosophy?’ in R. Marples (ed.) Aims of Education London and New York: Routledge 1999

 

‘Authentic Action-Research: A Good Deed in a Naughty World?’ Keynote at Day Conference on Action Research at Bath University School of Management 1999

I begin by raising some issues of self and change in the context of action research. I consider questions such as: What is the connection between the earlier and later selves? What is the impact on models of action research? I begin by noting some opposing views about the possibilities of authenticity and a connected self in conditions of change. I go on to argue for one of these views. The argument draws on autobiographical narratives of migrant women (including my own) using a methodology of critical distance from those narratives. I argue that authenticity and a connected self are possible for constructed, non-unitary selves - what I call a patchwork self. I draw attention to the significance of play in the construction of self. It is noticeable that the idea of play is double-edged. Playfulness has connotations of ease and innocence, but play also often requires a delight in being bad, testing boundaries, and flouting expectations. Using real examples, I propose one way of mapping possible ways of playing: role playing, performing stereotypes, playing the fool, and imaginative juxtapositions. I suggest that the use of play as a survival technique in contexts of self-protective pretence and performance can lead to an achieved, lost and re-achieved authenticity for those playing precariously on the edge. I go on to propose possible implications for anyone trying to understand the processes of action research.

 

'Authentic Action-Research: A Good Deed in a Naughty World?' Keynote at Day Conference on Action Research at Bath School of Management, 1999.

I begin by raising some issues of self and change in the context of action research. I consider questions such as: What is the connection between the earlier and later selves? What is the impact on models of action research? I begin by noting some opposing views about the possibilities of authenticity and a connected self in conditions of change. I go on to argue for one of these views. The argument draws on autobiographical narratives of migrant women (including my own) using a methodology of critical distance from those narratives.

 

Educational Research for Social Justice: Getting off the Fence Buckingham: Open University Press 1998

This is a book for all researchers in educational settings whose research is motivated by considerations of justice, fairness and equity. It addresses questions such researchers have to face. Will a prior political or ethical commitment bias the research? How far can the ideas of empowerment or 'giving a voice' be realised? How can researchers who research communities to which they belong deal with the ethical issues of being both insider and outsider?  Theoretical arguments and the realities of practical research are brought together and interwoven. The book provides a set of principles for doing educational research for social justice. These are rooted in considerations of methodology, epistemology and power relations, and provide a framework for dealing with the practical issues of collaboration, ethics, bias, empowerment, voice, uncertain knowledge and reflexivity, at all stages of research from getting started to dissemination and taking responsibility as members of the wider community of educational researchers.



 

 ‘Towards a theoretical framework for understanding social justice in educational practice’ Educational Philosophy and Theory 30 (2) 1998

It is the argument of this paper that a new kind of theoretical framework for social justice in education is needed, and the suggestion is made that it will be one which is rooted in radically revisable theory developed in collaboration with practitioners. First, the discourses of equality in schools are becoming unhelpful and are usefully becoming superseded by discourses of social justice. Second, theories of social justice rooted in liberalism have been based on considerations of housing, health and welfare, and their categories do not readily or usefully apply to education. Third, liberal frameworks, themselves, have been brought seriously into doubt by theories such as those found in postmodernism, and this has implications for ways of theorising social justice. Finally, a suggestion is made for a way forward, building on the critiques of liberalism to develop a continuously revisable framework in place of the timeless, universalism of current ones.

 

‘Self-determination and learning to be cruel: gender, race and the construction of self in relation to bullying and harassment’ European Journal of Women’s Studies 98 (5) 1998

I point out why self-determination is central to feminist theory and politics. Second I argue that conceptions of the self to be found in the traditions of Western philosophy are inadequate because they privilege a masculine perspective. I focus on two particularly influential examples from mainstream philosophy: the conceptions of self in Rorty and Hegel. I use a feminist perspective to criticize their arguments. Third I outline an alternative conception of self which makes central (1) the personal relations of love, antipathy, acceptance and rejection, (2) agency and (3) the constraints of material circumstances which can be worked with but which can never be completely overcome. Fourth, I show how the alternative conception is to be preferred on practical, political grounds, using the example of dealing with bullying and harassment in schools. The alternative conception explains the systematic effects of gender, race and social class in producing cruelty.

 

‘The discourses of social justice in schools’ British Educational Research Journal 24 (3) 1998

In this article I argue that it is possible to use and then build on contemporary theoretical and practical discourses surrounding issues of social justice in order to improve matters in schools. The research method is based in philosophical educational research: developing and generating theory in an iterative process of theorising in relation to specific practical circumstances and their problems. The argument shows that theoretical underpinnings of social justice need to be liberal-humanist, just as practical strategies need not be couched in the language of 1980s-style equal opportunities. It describes a method of formulating, in collaboration with practitioners, a set of theoretically informed social justice principles for managing schools. It then shows how these draw on, and contribute to, a set of discursive constructions related to social justice and its improvement.

 

‘Research for Social Justice: Empowerment and Voice’ Paper presented in the symposium ‘Philosophy and Educational Research’, at the Annual British Educational Research Association conference, Belfast, August, 1998.

The concepts of ‘empowerment' and ‘voice' crop up a great deal in educational research related to social justice.  Some examples demonstrate the range of claims to undertaking research for empowerment and of related claims to be ‘giving a voice'. They show that such claims are not the prerogative of any one of the political paradigms currently used in such research: for instance the liberal, critical or postmodern.  There have been some recent attempts to draw on theory and philosophy to help the research community gain in reflexivity and clarity about the possibilities of empowerment and voice, and about the different assumptions about power which underlie them.  These are examined and conclusions are drawn about practical consequences for researchers.

 

‘Telling Stories about Collaboration: Secrets and Lies?’  Paper presented at the Second International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices) Herstmonceux, Sussex August 1998 pp.225-228

How could we research the processes of collaborative educational research? Three themes are addressed: (i) The nature of collaboration and how it is to be investigated; (ii) The role of story in research and writing research; (iii) The significance of using a fragmented rather than linear mode of presentation for research. Each theme is addressed in three voices. The first voice, the most straightforward, considers ways of getting evidence about collaborative enterprises. The second, more critical and sceptical, questions the assumptions and methods that the first uses. The third, the most reflexive, ponders and interrogates the process as a whole.

 

‘Being naughty: a play for justice?’ Inaugural professorial lecture Nottingham Trent 1998

The theme of the lecture is the highly serious one of social justice in education. It is a serious topic but it does not have to be solemn. This lecture explores how play and naughtiness have a serious use for those working for justice both in and from the institutions of education. The lecture focuses on how play is a way of articulating the intersection of self-identity and social structure. While play can be both ‘innocent’ and ‘naughty’, it is the latter I focus on particularly. Drawing on autobiographical narratives, including my own, I discuss forms of play as ways in which education can help individuals to live well in an unjust world.

 

Cambridge Journal of Education: Special issue on Philosophy and Educational Research  (with David Bridges and Wilfred Carr)  1997

‘Introduction: on philosophy and educational research’ Cambridge Journal of Education (Special Issue: Philosophy and Educational Research) 27 (2 (with David Bridges and Wilfred Carr) ) 1997

The papers in this special issue demonstrate what a rich field of inquiry is opened up through discussions between philosophers and educational researchers. Papers have been contributed from both sides of the institutional divide between ‘philosophy of education’ and ‘educational research’. It is a bonus that it is not obvious in every case from which stable they have escaped. Some papers address the question of the divide, challenge the epistemological and metaphysical assumptions which have allowed it to develop and consider how it should be repaired or spanned. Other papers address the question by example, demonstrating various ways in which the connections can be made.

 

‘Why teachers and philosophers need each other: philosophy and educational research’ Cambridge Journal of Education (Special Issue: Philosophy and Educational Research) 27 (2) 1997

In this paper I discuss the relationship of philosophers and philosophy to teachers and schools using my ESRC funded research into social justice as an example. Drawing on, extending, playing with and finally rejecting Schön’s metaphor of the relationship; of the hard high ground of theory to the swampy lowlands of practice, I discuss ways of keeping both perspectives in touch with each other. There is a view of education philosophy that its role is to produce maps for the benefit of those below. I argue that this is unhelpful both to teachers and to philosophers and that philosophy as educational research will only flourish if a means is found to keep communication open about both perspectives.

 

‘Philosophic attitude: How Hegel’s theories helped solve a problem of bullying’ Times Educational Supplement 31 January 1997

George Hegel was born 226 years ago. He spent almost his whole life teaching and writing philosophy. His life as a university professor seems a world away from that of the children growing up in the urban landscapes of Britain in the 1990s. Yet, what he had to say about self and consciousness can help today's teachers, hard pressed as they are with the unremitting pressure of everyday classroom life. In one inner-city primary school in the East Midlands his ideas helped us - me, a visiting educational researcher with an interest in philosophy, and Carol, a class teacher - understand some of what was going on when seven-year-old Bartholomew kept getting beaten up by his nine-year-old cousin Leroy. As a result we were able to develop a principled approach to stopping the trouble, both between them and other boys in the school. Not that Hegel would have agreed with our practical, critical ways of using his ideas.

 

‘Philosophic attitude: How Hegel’s theories helped solve a problem of bullying’ Times Educational Supplement 31 January 1997

George Hegel was born 226 years ago. He spent almost his whole life teaching and writing philosophy. His life as a university professor seems a world away from that of the children growing up in the urban landscapes of Britain in the 1990s. Yet, what he had to say about self and consciousness can help today's teachers, hard pressed as they are with the unremitting pressure of everyday classroom life. In one inner-city primary school in the East Midlands his ideas helped us - me, a visiting educational researcher with an interest in philosophy, and Carol, a class teacher - understand some of what was going on when seven-year-old Bartholomew kept getting beaten up by his nine-year-old cousin Leroy. As a result we were able to develop a principled approach to stopping the trouble, both between them and other boys in the school. Not that Hegel would have agreed with our practical, critical ways of using his ideas.

 

Women Review Philosophy: New Writing by Women in Philosophy Nottingham University (with Margaret Whitford) 1996

 

‘Learning to be autonomous, learning to be cruel: Gender, race and the construction of self in relation to bullying and harassment’ Paper PRIVATE presented at BERA 1996

One of the central tenets of Western educational systems is that children should learn to be autonomous rather than dependent. This idea in education can be traced to two sources. One of them is basically Kantian and the other is to be found in Rousseau. Both of these ideas have been thoroughly criticised. The interest in autonomy / self-creation has been taken up by other philosophers in the European tradition who have not (until recently) been influential in the Anglo-analytic traditions: Hegel, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre. There is a possibility in these accounts of difference and otherness, and of the creation of new forms of difference and otherness.  However, these accounts also have problems, at least in part as a result of their privileging of a masculine perspective. I consider the arguments of two philosophers, Rorty and Hegel, both of whom give attention to the emotions of domination in their accounts of self-creation. In criticising these accounts I show how Rorty's account is both incoherent and incomprehensible, when it is considered from the perspective of women. I also use both Jessica Benjamin's arguments about Freudian implications of Hegel's master-slave narrative, and Paul Gilroy's criticisms of Hegel, from both a race and a gender perspective. These criticisms have implications for political and educational actions which are pointed out, but not explained in detail, within the space of this paper, using a theory of self-identity, which is also explained elsewhere and which is responsive to the feminist - and black - concerns about difference and social relationships. 

 

‘Know thyself: philosophy/self-study’ First International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices) Herstmonceux, Sussex Augustpp.84-88 1996

In this paper I present an argument about the interaction of philosophy and self-study in educational research. The context is one in which formal philosophy is often overlooked as a potential contributor to the whole educational research enterprise, including that part of it which is self-study in teacher education. In my view it is unhelpful to consider ‘philosophy’ or ‘educational research’ or even ‘self-study’ in the abstract. Therefore I anchor the general argument to particular cases, throughout. In (1) I begin by stating my views about the nature of educational research. In (2) I go on to introduce a set of guiding metaphors for the paper. I use them in (3) to consider educational research in general, and self-study in particular, firstly (a) from starting places in formal philosophy and secondly (b) starting from issues raised in the context of teaching and schools. The particular question I look at closely is: how it is that the personal, individual, private aspects of a self inter-relate with the political, collaborative, public struggle to establish justice in our world. In (c) I suggest how these two perspectives can be brought into a useful relationship with each other. In (4) this suggestion is expanded by suggesting how it can be generalised into a new juxtaposition of philosophy and education, in which the guiding metaphors begin to break down. In (5) the discussion is grounded in three examples: a university in-service module, a piece of philosophical action-research, and a collaboration with teachers to educate ourselves about social justice in schools.  In conclusion it is pointed out that cyberspace may be a more useful metaphor than physical space.

 

In Fairness to Children: Working for Social Justice in the Primary School London: David Fulton (with Carol Davies) 1995

This book is about fairness to children – including ways in which they can learn to be fair to each other. It is therefore about all the variety of children to be found in British primary schools, boys and girls; black and white; rich and poor; rural and urban; Muslim, Christian, Jew and Hindu; with and without specific learning disabilities; and with and without emotional and behavioural difficulties. It is a book written from two perspectives. Sometimes we, Carol and Morwenna, talk as a ‘we’ and sometimes each of us speaks for ourselves. We are interested in creating the best possible learning environment for every individual child. We are acutely aware that when we say ‘best possible’ we mean possible in the real-life conditions of schools, with all the various pressures they face, and the constraints they work under. We are also aware that the schools we work in are part of the wider community. In creating fair schools we are also doing something towards creating a fair society. Schools where children are treated with fairness and justice and where they learn to treat others in the same way are an important part of the creation of a better world for everybody.

 

Feminisms and the Self: The Web of Identity London and New York: Routledge 1995

 

Anti-racism, Culture and Social Justice in Education Stoke: Trentham  (with Barry Troyna) 1995

 

‘Making a difference: feminism, postmodernism and the methodology of educational research’ British Educational Research Journal 21 (2) 1995

Different versions of feminism and post-modernism are surveyed and briefly described. The current debate about the relationship between feminism and post-modernism is reviewed with particular regard to the challenges each set of theories offers to traditional epistemologies. The paper concludes with a section in which suggestions are made about the influence of feminism and post-modernism on the methodology of educational research -  including action research. The suggestions occur in the context of a reflection on the author’s own recent research projects.

 

‘Auto/biography and epistemology’ Educational Review 47 (1) 1995

The focus in this paper is on the epistemological status of a range of methods used in educational research and teacher education which may be called (auto)biographical. On the one hand the epistemological soundness of such methods is in question, while, on the other, traditional epistemology itself is also in question as a result of a range of challenges, including those coming from feminism. This paper focuses on the challenge from feminist epistemologies. It is argued that feminists have demonstrated that reliable knowledge can only be achieved through a process which includes, fundamentally, the subjectivity or experiences of individuals and groups of individuals; power and politics; and a dialectic of theory with individual experiences. It is further argued that (auto)biographical methods are well placed to include these factors, although not all (auto)biographies will do so. It is concluded that some, but only some, (auto)biographical methods are epistemologically sound. The confessional, apolitical and atheoretical ones are not so useful as those which take account of politics and theories for public purposes.

 

‘Feminist perspectives on the use of life narratives in a primary classroom’ in D. Thomas (ed.) Teachers’ Stories Buckingham: Open University Press 1995

 

Methodological and ethical dilemmas in international research: school attendance and gender in Ghana’ Oxford Review of Education 20 (4) (with Marie Parker-Jenkins) 1994

The paper considers questions of ethics and methodology in international research. An action research project designed for Ghana/UNICEF as part of a consultancy on school attendance is used as a case-study from which to examine the ethical dilemmas facing consultants and their clients in educational research carried out as part of international aid. Ethical dilemmas of resourcing, ownership, accountability and self-interest are discussed by the English consultants. It thus has a double purpose. It both contributes to research on school attendance, and also furthers debate about methodology and constraints on it.  

 

‘Autobiography, feminism and the practice of action-research’ International Journal of Educational Action Research 2 (1) 1994

This paper is a contribution to the development of the view that action research should be both personal and political. It is shown that the personal and particular, as expressed in autobiographical methods, can also be political and critical. This claim is dependent on (1) the view that to be epistemologically sound, a method needs to be critical and political and (2) the view that to be epistemologically sound, a method needs to be personal, and also to be revisable over time. Arguments are given for these two views, using feminist epistemology. It is recognised that he claim would be hollow if it were not possible to convert abstract requirements into actual methods. This possibility is demonstrated by (3) considering the method of autobiography in general, ‘critical autobiography’ in particular, and (4) examining my own autobiographical writing in journals made during an action research project, using the criteria developed in (1) and (2).

 

‘Self-identity and self-esteem: achieving equality in education’ Oxford Review of Education 19 (3) 1993

Psychological and educational theories about self-esteem in education emphasise its dependence on achievement and/or self-actualisation. Government recommendations follow their lead. In this paper an alternative theory of self-esteem is developed, drawing on feminist explorations of the politics of identity. Experiences of `belonging' and `not belonging' are central to the theory. The theory of the self is compared with Liberal and Romantic theories, which underpin the achievement-oriented understanding of self-esteem. Conclusions are drawn about the relationship between the development of self-esteem of children in schools, and educational policies of social justice. It is argued that improvement of the self-esteem of minority or oppressed groups would result in their empowerment and is, therefore, a political, not a psychological, issue.

 

‘Educational change and the self’ British Journal of Educational Studies 41 (2) 1993

The educational system of a country is kept in place and kept running by the actions and efforts of thousands of people, all of whom are devoting a considerable part of their lives to it. They find that their own lives are changed by the efforts they are making. Each of their individual selves changes and is changed by both small and large scale educational developments. Research about self and change in teachers and schools can be found in a number of diverse areas of educational theory. It is necessary to be aware of the range of research if theory and practice are to advance. In this paper I outline a proposal for a theory of the self which brings together a number of diverse strands of research, and, at the same time, provides a critical perspective on it. I show how the proposed new theory illuminates the process of educational change better than the theories of the self which underlie current educational research and thinking. The paper is abstract and theoretical, rather than a report on empirical findings. I am aiming to ground specialist inquiry in a continuing conversation with other specialists and with teachers, parents and policy-makers about how educational values are to be realised in practice. A conversation is not a lecture. I aim to open up issues rather than give prematurely definitive answers.

 

‘Learning to learn: action research from an equal opportunities perspective in a junior school’ British Educational Research Journal 19 (1) 1993 (with Carol Davies) 

The project described is action research into pupils’ learning in a (years 5 and 6) class of a primary school, which was carried out by the class teacher and an education lecturer in partnership. While the focus of the research was on the processes of pupils’ learning, the overriding research question was the possibility of improving equality of opportunity for pupils in a socially and racially mixed classroom. The resulting innovative, participative methodology is discussed. It is argued that the pupils were empowered by their involvement in the setting up of the research and in drawing conclusions from it. This process is described, and the effects on the children’s ability to learn and reflect on their own learning needs are reported. Finally, the question of how far research of this kind should be extended to an explicit focus on race, class or gender is raised.

 

‘Auto/biography and Epistemology’ Annual Conference of the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain Oxford April 1993

 

Self-identity, Self-esteem, and Social Justice Nottingham: University of Nottingham 1992

 

‘The politics of identity, the politics of the self’ Women: A Cultural Review (Special Issue: Gendering philosophy) 3 (2) 1992 (with Anne Seller)

The article is in the form of a dialogue between Morwenna Griffiths and Anne Seller. It takes place in six sections: (1) A word about language; (2) Why the assault on identity politics makes me nervous; (3) The self in the world she is trying change; (4) Wanting and not wanting to belong; (5) The problem with belonging – the problem with not belonging; (6) Notes on politics and identity (6i) Two main questions, (6ii) Brief characterisation of identity politics, (6iii) The perceived problems of identity politics – and responses, (iv) Not contradicting, (6v) reinstatement and reaffirmation of the value of identity politics (6vi) In order to do all this we need to look at…

 

‘Autonomy and the fear of dependence’ Women’s Studies International Forum 15 (3) 1992

Autonomy is often thought to be a problem for women. I suggest that the problem of autonomy is a problem for (some) men and that they wish their problems onto the rest of us. The difficulty of understanding autonomy and its related concepts of independence, dependence, individuality, etc., is exacerbated by the present structure of western traditions of thought, as shown by our language. Some things are difficult to say in it. Feminist theory and practice have helped to point up the contradictions and incoherence in masculine ways of talking. Language needs reclaiming. I shall describe how this may be done as part of a politics of reflection and action.

 

‘Using reflective practice to link personal and public theories’ Journal of Education for Teaching 18 (1) 1992 (with Sarah Tann)

Ways of improving the efficacy of present methods of relating theory and practice in the education of teachers are considered. It is argued that: (1) insufficient attention has been paid to the methods of uncovering personal theories; (2) personal theores are often expressed in images and metaphors; and  (3) the interlocking of personal and puvlic theory can usefully be understood as the interaction of different leels of reflection. Five levels of reflection are identified and are then used to argue, further, that (4) different language is appropriate to different levels of reflection; and (5) each practitioner should be able to work at each level.

 

‘Ripples in the reflection’ in P. Lomax (ed.) Managing Better Schools and Colleges: the action research way Multilingual matters (with Sarah Tann 1992

(most of it can be found here: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Ydbw2vL6u5sC&pg=PA82&lpg=PA82&dq=%22ripples+in+the+reflection%22&source=bl&ots=cGygtAznhG&sig=1nRfZjQ-fKDRvMPdVAYhPEltXKQ&hl=en&sa=X&ei=jIwEVYmFEoHW7gakw4CACw&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22ripples%20in%20the%20reflection%22&f=false

We had worries. For the last five years we had been part of a team which worked on teacher education courses, both in-sevice and pre-service, based on a model of the ‘reflective practitioner’. It had not all been plain sailing, and once again we found we were running into troubled waters. It was high time we pooled orj reflections. In our gloomier moments it seemed that we had all acquired a new rhetoric, but not much else. Students had certainly generated large files of observational data and copious commentaries. But were these ‘reflections’? What we really expected ‘reflections’ to look like? How had we as reflective tutors functioned? What had we learnt from the experience? What had our students learnt? Was any of it worthwhile? The more we stirred the waters the m ore more muddied our responses became. In this article we considered personaliled theories and how they might be dredged up. It had become clear that plain words failed even for articulate experienced teachers. Working with fantasies, metaphors and images was a far more effective way of developing their practice than tinkering with the elements of their teaching methods which they first presented as problematic. The paper aims to expose the degree to which much action research remains at a superficial level (useful as that can be) and to suggest ways of plunging into deeper waters to surface the connections between personal and public theories.

 

‘Action research in teacher education’ in O. Zuber-Skerritt (ed.) Action Research in Higher Education Brisbane: Griffith University (with Kate Ashcroft) 1991

 

‘Action research: grassroots practice or management tool?’ in P. Lomax (ed.) Managing Staff Development in Schools Clevedon: Multilingual Matters 1990

 

‘Practice Run’ Times Educational Supplement 15 June 1990

 

‘Why philosophy needs feminism: is philosophy handicapped by its male bias?’ Cogito 3 (3) 1989

Philosophers are usually much more likely to think that they are needed than needy. That philosophy needs feminism is a startling concept to many philosophers. Surely, many professional philosophers would argue, philosophy is a deeply neutral subject, with no room for points of view. It may, they would continue, become political, but only when it is ‘applied’. Feminist philosophers deny all this: philosophy both as practised and in its content shows all the signs of being male-dominated and masculine.

 

‘Standing alone: dependence, independence and interdependence’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 23 (2) (with Richard Smith) 1989

Independence and the related concepts of freedom and autonomy are key terms in philosophy of education. Teacher educators are keen on independence, but seem to hold different definitions of the concept, and these various definitions do not co-exist happily. The relative autonomy that one may be able to achieve is not to be had unless one acknowledges one's dependence. Without that acknowledgment, the independence that adults hurry toward and hurry their children toward, does not bring the adult solidity and security that were expected. Of course it is quite easy to get children to imitate and internalize the conventional models of independence, but this does not last because true autonomy requires that one have experienced and still be in touch with one's feelings of dependence.

 

‘Reflective teachers and reflective tutors: school experience in an initial teacher education course’ (with Kate Ashcroft) Journal of Education for Teaching 15 (1) 1989

An approach to reflective teaching which includes the processes of critical enquiry is central to the initial teacher education B.Ed. course at Oxford Polytechnic. This course leads to a joint degree in education and one other subject. We have found that as a result of using the approach, and of working through the implications of the processes of critical inquiry school experience is central to the course. This is not surprising in a B.Ed. course but, as many educational researchers have noticed, there is usually a sharp disjunction between college and school in initial teacher education. Further we have found that the approach has required particular attention to be paid to the viewpoints of three groups immediately involved in the placement of students in schools: the class teachers, the students and the tutors. Surprisingly, considering all three perspectives is unusual in educational research: it has been far more usual to base research and evaluation on only one, or sometimes two of them. The three perspectives, within the framework of the model of the reflective teacher, have important consequences not only for our particular course but also for teacher education and teacher appraisal in general. We also draw conclusions about the process of reflective teaching in general and about the process of action research in particular. The conclusions we draw are tentative and open-ended. This paper is intended to open discussion, not close it.

 

Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London and Indiana: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press  (with Margaret Whitford) 1988

 

‘Introduction’ in M. Griffiths and M. Whitford (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press (with Margaret Whitford) 1988

 

‘Feminism, feelings and philosophy’ in M. Griffiths and M. Whitfo rd (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988

 

‘Strong feelings about computers’ Women’s Studies International Forum 11 (2) 1988

Women are becoming absent from the world of computers. The reasons for this are related to the way computers have become associated with technology. Technology and masculinity are also strongly associated. The lack of logic of these associations is examined, and their danger is noted. The danger arises because it is femininity rather than masculinity which is associated with feelings and personal relationships. Thus technology is taken to be unencumbered by feelings and emotions, mistakenly so. As feminist theory and practice makes clear, the unrecognised feelings push technological development in undesirable directions. Unless both the illogicality of the associations and their power are recognised, attempts to persuade women and girls to take up computing may do as much harm as good, strengthening the very associations which need to be weakened. Some strategies which would help women and girls enter the computing world are discussed. It is pointed out that any strategies that are tried need to be underpineed by three things: vigilance, subversion, and the creation of an alternative vision. Vigilance is needed to see what is going on: a continual critical monitoring of the changing scene. Vigilance should lead to subversion. Computer culture is man made and it needs to be feminised from within. However, criticism and subversion fail if no alternative is offered. An alternative vision is needed to see how else we could make the world.

 

‘Girls and computers in primary schools’ Journal of Curriculum Studies 20 (5) 1988 (with Margaret Alfrey)

There may be overall trends which reflect the reasons girls turn away from computers – or which contribute to them. In 1985 we approached a random sample of Kent primary schools to see if we could identify some of these trends. Of the 182 headteachers approached, 172 (94%) replied. There have been a number of research projects aimed at discovering why it is that some subjects do not attract girls and boys in equal numbers. Many such studies have focused particularly on science. While there is much that remains puzzling, even anomalous, it seems clear that the image of science as ‘masculine’ is significant in influencing the initial choices that girls and boys make. Further, it seems that once males predominate in any subject or area of work, females tend to become excluded from it. Beliefs and attitudes about what is masculine, or what is suitable for boys, ae certainly forming in the primary years. It is important the process of the formation of the associations is recognized for what it is while there is still time to affect it. The results of our survey indicate why girls may be developing beliefs and attitudes about computers which affect their later subject choices.

 

‘Teaching skills and the skills of teaching’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 21 (2) 1987

In this paper I begin by considering the meaning and use of the concept of skill, especially in an educational context, and then go on to compare my account with those of Robin Barrow and Richard Smith in this Journal (1985). Unlike them I argue that talking of skills is an extremely useful way of thinking of the curriculum. I have argued elsewhere that the curriculum has to be understood in terms of both practical and theoretical knowledge (i.e.non-propositional as well as propositional knowledge). Here I look specifically at the nature of practical knowledge, using the concept of a skill to do so. I argue that a proper understanding of skill would improve the teaching and learning that takes place in schools and institutions of teacher education. The argument has a bearing on the whole vexed question of theory and practice in general and on educational theory and practice in particular, but I only allude to these issues.

 

‘Hirst’s forms of knowledge and Korner’s categorial frameworks’ Oxford Review of Education 12 (1) 1986

Public policy on education is undergoing a number of significant changes. Hirst's theory of the forms of knowledge is influential in determining the direction of these. I consider his theory and examine its philosophical underpinning. I conclude that, in the absence of any other clear demonstration or argument, Hirst must be relying on Korner's analysis of categorial frameworks. I show that Korner's analysis only partly supports Hirst's theory. Further, I show that, if Korner's theory is correct, Hirst's theory needs modifying. The modification has practical implications for educational policy. I argue that Hirst is right that children need to be introduced to knowledge dealing with a range of ultimate categorial concepts. However, unlike Hirst, I argue that knowledge is not to be reduced to verbal knowledge. I also argue that there are not a limited number of forms of knowledge. Indeed education should extend a cautious welcome to the new ways of theorising that arise from different sectors of society. Moreover, there is a difference between highly theoretical, abstract knowledge and less theoretical concrete knowledge, which is highly significant in any consideration of education 5-16, and which has  been overlooked in the theory.

 

‘Vigilance, subversion and imagination about computers’ The European Conference on Women, Natural Sciences and Technology, Aalborg, Denmark, 1986

 

‘Emotions and education’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 18 (2) 1984

A new orthodoxy of emotion has replaced the ‘traditional view’ in which emotions and feelings were not considered to be rational. In contrast, in the new orthodoxy emotions are rational, cognitive, and related to logic and understanding. Little emphasis is put on occurrent feelings, experience, or consciousness. It is a useful counter to the view it combats, in which emotions are thought to be irrational, inexplicable, and unrelated to the understanding. However, the theory has serious shortcomings. The alternative I propose requires a reassessment both of emotion and of rationality. It reintroduces occurrent feeling, experience and consciousness. In Section One, I assert my initial position, firstly about feeling and emotion, and secondly about rationality. In Section Two I go on to show how this position leads to conclusions about emotions and education. I do this by discussing the relationship between rationality and feeling. This leads into a consideration of irrationality and its relationship to being emotional. As a result, it becomes possible in Section Three to achieve a greater exactness of terminology and to say more precisely what is meant by an emotion. Finally, on the basis of the analysis, some examples of the implications for education are given in Section Four.

 

‘Who writes what and why’ in B. Kroll and C. G. Wells (eds.) Explorations in the development of writing London and New York: Wiley (with Gordon Wells) 1984

 


 

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[1] Personal and Social Education


 

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Griffiths, Morwenna, ‘Research and the Self’ in Biggs, M. and Karlsson, H. (eds.)  Routledge Companion to Research in the Arts Routledge, 2010 (with examples written by Tony  Gemmell, Nettie Scriven, Peter Rumney, Irinya Kuksa,  Sara Giddens, and Simon Jones)  This chapter considers the role of the self in research. It argues that arts-based practice-based research needs to address the issue of the self of the researcher.  It shows the significance of self within the processes and in its outcomes, whether these are propositions, descriptions, explanations, theories, artefacts, changed practices or changed understandings.  In Section 1, I present a brief overview of the theory of the self which informs the argument of the chapter. In Section 2, I outline the logic of research processes from the initial conception of a research project through to its end. Section 3 contains three examples of different kinds of on-going, arts-based, practice-based research which are used to ground the subsequent discussion of how the self enters into arts-based research, and the implications of this for researchers. Section 4 draws on the examples in Section 3 to provide an overview of the intersections of self and research. Section 5 addresses criticisms sometimes levelled at arts-based, practice based research focused on its partiality. The final section concludes with some remarks about the significance of acknowledging the place of the self in research.

Griffiths, Morwenna,  Tony Gemmell and Bob Kibble, What kind of research culture do teacher educators want, and how can we get it? Studying Teacher Education, 2010 6 (2) This paper describes a collaborative research journey involving nine teacher-educators.  Their common purpose was to find a research identity in a university department with a strong commitment to the education and training of student teachers but which existed within a university that prided itself on maintaining a reputation for research excellence. The methodology was inextricably linked to the decision to take a journey as a group. The journey, both route and progress, became the focus of our self study through a number of exchange platforms including collaborative meetings, agendas which embraced equity and social justice, a shared blog space for self-reflection and engagement with others via partnership conferences. Data was qualitative, and used to reflect on the ambitions, frustrations, and achievements of the participants as revealed through personal stories. Key findings of this study include (i) the discovery of hurdles, false starts and frustrations which were common to all members of the group but which hitherto had remained hidden and private, (ii) the tension between an identity as educator with a sense of responsibility to students and that of an active researcher (iii) issues of time and work balance between teaching and researching.

Griffiths, Morwenna, 'Justice, joy and educational delights' Inaugural Lecture, Moray House School of Education, Edinburgh University. 2009  Word

Griffiths, Morwenna, Heather Malcolm and Zoe Williamson, ‘Faces and Spaces and Doing Research’ in Tidwell, D.L., Heston, M.L. and Fitzgerald, L.M. (eds) Research Methods for the Self-Study of Practice, Springer 2009  Where do teacher educators find spaces and places for research? Especially given their increasingly busy lives and all the competing demands on their time. This was the question that five of us, all working in a teacher education department, asked of ourselves at the outset of our self-study.  The study used visual methods and was rooted in an overarching set of ethical and epistemological principles. The specific methods and processes varied, including variation in the use of the visual at different stages of the research. In this chapter (1) we give a brief overview of the overarching principles. (2) We then go on to summarise how the Nottingham studies were carried out, and (3) show how the Edinburgh study was influenced by them in articulating the research question. (4) In the main body of the paper we go on to report on the Edinburgh study. (4.1) We discuss the methods used to gather evidence  and (4.2) ways in which the evidence was analysed in order to (4.3) draw conclusions. (5) At the end of the chapter we bring out how our own practice has been affected. We suggest how readers might use a similar visual methodology in their own self-studies.

Griffiths, Morwenna and Gale Macleod, ‘Personal narratives and policy: never the twain?’ in Bridges, D., Smeyers, P. and Smith, R. (eds) Evidence-based Education Policy Wiley 2009

And in:

Griffiths, Morwenna and Gale Macleod,  ‘Personal narratives and policy: never the twain?’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 2008 42 (s1). In this paper the extent to which stories and personal narratives can and should be used to inform education policy is examined. A range of studies describable as story or personal narrative is investigated. They include life-studies, life-writing, life history, narrative analysis, and the representation of lives. We use ‘auto/biography’ as a convenient way of grouping this range under one term. It points to the many and varied ways that accounts of self interrelate and intertwine with accounts of others.  That is, auto/biography illuminates the social context of individual lives.  At the same time it allows room for unique, personal stories to be told. We do not explicitly discuss all the different forms of auto/biography.  Rather, we investigate the epistemology underlying personal story in the context of social action.  We discuss the circumstances in which a story may validly be used by educational policy makers and give some examples of how they have done so in the past.

Griffiths, Morwenna. (2009) Critical Approaches in qualitative educational research. Accessed on-line at http://www.bera.ac.uk/critical-approaches-in-qualitative-educational-research  These pages are designed to engage researchers with issues of critical research design and data analysis in a range of educational contexts. ‘Critical research’ is not a tidy category. In these pages it is taken to mean, roughly, research which aims at understanding, uncovering, illuminating, and/or transforming how educational aims, dilemmas, tensions and hopes are related to social divisions and power differentials. Research in this area entails paying attention to fundamental issues of epistemology, truth, validity, perspective and justice. While researchers agree as to the relevance of these issues, they disagree about how they relate to power and social context. These pages provide an introduction to this complex area.  Each page includes a brief introductory section, usually followed by further explanation of key concepts. Further guidance is provided in the form of references, including, where available, full texts of articles as pdfs or Word documents

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Action research for/as/mindful of social justice’ in Bridget Somekh and Susan Noffke (eds.) Handbook of Educational Action Research, Sage (2009). This chapter examines and explores the potential of action research to enhance social justice in education. It discusses different approaches and practices within the field of education in relation to epistemologies and principles underlying research for social justice. Implicit in many characterisations of action research is the potential to work for justice - in small scale projects or for larger social and educational ends. At the same time, disquiet has been expressed by many action researchers about the co-option of action research for merely instrumental ends, or for purposes of social control rather than of social justice. The chapter addresses the question: when and how far is action research coherent with aims for social justice?

Morwenna Griffiths and Hamish Ross, ‘Public space, participation and expressive arts’ in Bob Lingard, Jon Nixon and Stewart Ransom (eds.) Transforming Learning, Continuum (2008) This chapter explores if and how the arts can contribute to enabling young people to participate in public spaces and so to improve their chances of contributing to democratic process as adults. It draws on previously reported research in which it was argued that: (1) arts-based work in school has helped disadvantaged and/or disaffected children to engage in activities (both arts-based and others); and (2) to be able to lay the ground work for exercising voice and agency as they did so. (3) A further suggestion was made that such an exercise of voice and agency might enable children to learn how to participate in public spaces, and contribute to deepening democracy in their communities. This chapter draws on philosophical discussion and empirical evidence in order to explore the link between (2) and (3):  how schools might educate young people to engage with civic society and to take a full part in its democratic processes.  It argues that the arts based work creates particular kinds of public spaces in school, and goes on to explore the relation of such public spaces to the public spaces needed in adult life if social justice is to flourish. The formulation of this argument depends on a specific understanding of the term ‘public space’, one which is highly dependent on Hannah Arendt’s discussion of the term.

 

Morwenna Griffiths and Felicity Woolf, The Nottingham apprenticeship model: schools in partnership with artists and creative practitioners, British Educational Research Journal, 34 (4) 2008

Joan Cutting, Richard Easton, Tony Gemmell, Morwenna Griffiths, Neil Houston, Bob Kibble, Heather Malcolm, Jannet Robinson, Hamish Ross, 'Building a Research Culture in a Teacher Education Environment:  What kind of research culture do we want? And how do we get it?' European Conference on Educational Research, Ghent, September 2007

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Being Naughty to be Good: Playing at/as being Authentic’ in Deborah Orr and Diana Taylor (eds.) Lessons from the Gynaeceum: Women Philosophizing — Past, Present and Future, Rowman and Littlefield (2007).     I draw attention to some underlying philosophical tensions  in identity politics about the possibilities of authenticity.  The arguments of identity politics show how identities are constructed in and against political formations such as gender. These arguments can lead in different, opposing, directions.  I argue, against all these suggestions, that authenticity and a connected self are possible for constructed, non-unitary selves - what I call a patchwork self.   My  argument draws on autobiographical narratives (including my own) using a methodology of critical distance from those narratives. A particularly useful narrative in this regard is Maria Lugones’ article, ‘Playfulness, “World”-Traveling, and Loving Perception’. Drawing on this, in connection with autobiographies of other migrant women, I consider the possibilities of play: playing tricks, playing the fool, and role playing. I draw a distinction between play and playfulness. It is noticeable that the idea of play is double-edged.  On the one hand playfulness has connotations of ease and innocence, while on the other play often requires a delight in being naughty, testing boundaries, and flouting expectations. I conclude by suggesting an easy, innocent playfulness may be a mark of achieved authenticity, but only in the context of a delight in naughtiness as a method of (re)achieving it. This is a survival technique in contexts of self-protective pretence and performance.

Morwenna Griffiths, What kind of research evidence should our leaders use? Scottish Educational Review, 40 (1) 2008

Morwenna Griffiths and Jean Barr, ‘The nature of knowledge and lifelong learning' in David Aspin (ed.) Philosophical Perspectives on Lifelong Learning, Springer Press (2007) This paper starts from the position that lifelong learning is more than is assumed in current policy rhetoric. This rhetoric focuses on training for a ‘knowledge economy’ in which all citizens play their part. We argue that this rhetoric depends on a view of knowledge as instrumental, individual and disembodied. Against this we propose a notion of knowledge as social, embodied and reflexive about its own roots in time and space. It is this notion that underpins the richer, more democratic notion of lifelong learning which we explore in this essay using examples drawn from various, diverse sites, especially museum and art education ‘from cradle to grave’.  

Morwenna Griffiths, (with Judy Berry, Anne Holt, John Naylor and Philippa Weekes) ‘Learning to be in public spaces: in from the margins with dancers, sculptors, painters and musicians' in Chris Gaine, Ghazala Bhatti, Yvonne Leeman and Francesca Gobbo (eds.) Social Justice and Intercultural Education: an Open-Ended Dialogue, Trentham 2007 This article reports research in three Nottingham schools, concerned with (1) 'The school as fertile ground: how the ethos of a school enables everyone in it to benefit from the presence of artists in class'; (2) 'Children on the edge: how the arts reach those children who otherwise exclude themselves from class activities, for any reason' and (3) 'Children's voices and choices: how even very young children can learn to express their wishes, and then have them realised through arts projects'. The research methodology was rooted in two modes of inquiry, philosophical investigation and action research. The article draws on this research to argue that arts-based work in school has helped disadvantaged and/or disaffected children to engage in activities (both arts-based and others), and to be able to lay the groundwork for exercising voice and agency as they did so. If social justice is to flourish there is a need for particular kinds of public spaces and a need to create conditions such that children can learn to participate in those spaces, whether or not they are comfortable with the usual settings for 'rational argument' or 'deliberative democracy'. It is suggested that arts-based education, in some forms, is one good way of creating these conditions.

Peter Bowbrick and Morwenna Griffiths, Girls’ Schooldays in Ruddington Remembered 2007) Ruddington, Nottinghamshire: Ruddington Village Museum

Peter Bowbrick and Morwenna Griffiths, Boys’ Schooldays in Ruddington Remembered 2007) Ruddington, Nottinghamshire: Ruddington Village Museum

Morwenna Griffiths, Judy Berry, Anne Holt. John Naylor and Philippa Weekes) Learning to be in public spaces: in from the margins with dancers, sculptors, painters and musicians, British Journal of Educational Studies (Special Issue on Social Justice) (54 (3) 2006. This article reports research in three Nottingham schools, concerned with (1) 'The school as fertile ground: how the ethos of a school enables everyone in it to benefit from the presence of artists in class'; (2) 'Children on the edge: how the arts reach those children who otherwise exclude themselves from class activities, for any reason' and (3) 'Children's voices and choices: how even very young children can learn to express their wishes, and then have them realised through arts projects'. The research methodology was rooted in two modes of inquiry, philosophical investigation and action research. The article draws on this research to argue that arts-based work in school has helped disadvantaged and/or disaffected children to engage in activities (both arts-based and others), and to be able to lay the groundwork for exercising voice and agency as they did so. If social justice is to flourish there is a need for particular kinds of public spaces and a need to create conditions such that children can learn to participate in those spaces, whether or not they are comfortable with the usual settings for 'rational argument' or 'deliberative democracy'. It is suggested that arts-based education, in some forms, is one good way of creating these conditions.

Morwenna Griffiths and Tony Cotton, Action research, stories and practical philosophy, Educational Action Research, 15 (4) 2007 This paper explores the use of practical philosophy in action research. It describes what ‘practical philosophy’ is and how it makes a connection between ‘theory’ and ‘practice’ – while never losing hold of either. It begins from the understanding that philosophy is rooted in social practices with philosophy in educational practices rooted in educational practice. The paper goes on to explore the use of stories as a way into the diversity of significant particularities. Finally the links are made between practical philosophy, stories and the notion of action research. The theme of social justice permeates.  It is an example of a theory-practice connection, and also it provides the underlying rationale for the approach. 

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘The feminization of teaching and the practice of teaching: threat or opportunity? Educational Theory 56(4) Fall 2006

In this essay, Morwenna Griffiths considers the effect of feminization on the practices of education. She outlines a feminist theory of practice that draws critically on theories of embodiment, diversity, and structures of power to show that any practice is properly seen as fluid, leaky, and viscous. Examining different and competing understandings of "feminization"— referring either to the numbers of women in teaching or to a culture associated with women — Griffiths argues that concerns about increasing number of women teachers are misplaced. She complicates the cultural question, observing that masculine practices have a hegemonic form while feminized practices have developed in resistance to these, and she ultimately argues that hegemonic masculinity, not feminization, is the problem because it drives out diversity. Griffiths concludes that the leaky, viscous practices of teaching would benefit from the increased diversity and decreased social stratification feminization brings to the profession.

Morwenna Griffiths, Joseph Windle and Margaret Simms ‘“That’s what I am here for”: Images of working lives of academic and support staff in D. Tidwell and L. Fitzgerald (eds.) Self-study and Diversity New York: Springer 2006

Morwenna Griffiths, A feminist perspective on communities of practice Socio-cultural Theory in Educational Research and Practice, Manchester, September, 2005

Morwenna Griffiths 'Being naughty: a play for justice?' Inaugural Lecture, Nottingham Trent University.

Morwenna Griffiths and Dina Poursanidou, ‘A self-study of collaborations among teacher educators’ Studying Teacher Education 1 (2) 2005 This paper describes a self-study of two collaborations. The first collaboration focused on an attempt to study the teaching of social justice issues to pre-service student teachers. The second collaboration was an attempt to understand why the first collaboration was only partially successful. The study charts the process of collaboration over two years. The methodology is highly reflective, depending primarily on sources that were seen as being significant in retrospect rather than collected with a sense of purpose. Data include emails, conversations noted at the time or remembered, notes made of discussions at conference presentations, and reflective journal entries. Conclusions are drawn with significance beyond this self-study. They include clarification of the nature of collaboration and the parts played by the role and personality of the collaborators, factors to be taken into account for success, reasons for collaboration, and the importance of focusing on the self who is inviting or persuading others to collaborate rather than on anyone else. Presented as a narrative in dialogic form, the paper demonstrates the growth of understanding over the period of the self-study and illustrates the development of one kind of collaboration among congenial colleagues.

Morwenna Griffiths and Tony Cotton, ‘Action research, stories and practical philosophyPractioner Research Action Research /Collaborative Action Research Network Joint Annual International Conference, Utrecht, November, 2005 This paper explores the use of practical philosophy in action research. It describes what ‘practical philosophy’ is and how it makes a connection between ‘theory’ and ‘practice’ – while never losing hold of either. It begins from the understanding that philosophy is rooted in social practices with philosophy in educational practices rooted in educational practice. The paper goes on to explore the use of stories as a way into the diversity of significant particularities. Finally the links are made between practical philosophy, stories and the notion of action research. The theme of social justice permeates.  It is an example of a theory-practice connection, and also it provides the underlying rationale for the approach.

Morwenna Griffiths, Joseph Windle and Margaret Simms ‘Academic and support staff: Images of three working lives in teacher education’ Fifth International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex, July 2004

 Morwenna Griffiths and Felicity Woolf, Report on Creative Partnerships Nottingham Action Research for Creative Partnerships Nottingham  Published 2004

Morwenna Griffiths, in dialogue with Lis Bass, Marilyn Johnston and Victoria Perselli ‘Knowledge, social justice, and self-study’ in J. Loughran, M.L. Hamilton, V. LaBoskey and T. Russell (eds.) International Handbook of Self-Study of Teaching and Teacher Education Practices New York: Kluwer 2004 This chapter addresses the issue of professional knowledge and social justice. It is presented in dialogic form, as a conversation in four voices. The conversation is nterspersed with four case studies, each one written by one of the authors. The case studies illuminate, exemplify and resist the arguments within the conversation about self-study, social justice, and epistemology. The paper is divided into four broad sections. The first, “Social Justice and Self-Study,” looks directly at the links between social justice and self-study. It begins by considering the resistances and difficulties inherent in addressing social justice issues, and continues by seeking a definition for social justice. The second, “What Kind of Knowledge?”, looks directly at the nature of knowledge that is gained in self-study that is rooted in a concern for social justice. From a starting point of knowing ourselves as tellers of stories, it goes on to address ways of telling and listening to stories across divisive social boundaries and hierarchies. The third section, “Professional Knowledge” introduces the idea of "little stories and grand narrative,” exploring ways in which professional knowledge might be understood as "little stories” countering, disrupting, critical of and contributing to "grand narratives” of educational knowledge. The fourth section addresses the urgent and difficult question, "Why is There so Little Self-Study on Social Justice Issues?”

Morwenna Griffiths and Dina Poursanidou, ‘Collaboration and self-study in relation to teaching social justice issues to beginning teachersFifth International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex, July 2004

Morwenna Griffiths, Joseph Windle and Margaret Simms ‘Academic and support staff: Images of three working lives in teacher education’ Fifth International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex, July 2004

Morwenna Griffiths, Action for Social Justice in Education: Fairly Different Buckingham: Open University Press 2003 Social justice is a verb. This book puts forward a view of social justice as action orientated rather than as a static theory. Complex discussions of difference, equality, recognition, and redistribution are made accessible and relevant to issues of class, race, gender, sexuality and disability. Interwoven with the discussion are compelling individual accounts of the pleasures and pains, the pitfalls and glittering prizes to be found in education - told by individuals coming from a diversity of social, economic, and ethnic backgrounds. The second part of the book includes examples of successful interventions in real situations, related to self-esteem, empowerment, partnership, and the initiation of individual and joint action to improve social justice in education. The discussion is kept open through 'answering back' sections by educators committed to social justice: Deborah Chetcuti, Max Biddulph, Ghazala Bhatti, Roy Corden, Melanie Walker, Jon Nixon and Kenneth Dunkwu.

Morwenna Griffiths and Jean Barr, ‘Training the imagination to “go visiting”‘ in M. Walker and J. Nixon (eds.) Reclaiming Universities from a Runaway World Buckingham, Open University Press2003This chapter explores, in the context of university education, the nature of a public space that can accommodate and reconstruct ‘public knowledge’. We understand ‘public space’ to be a social space of interaction, rather than a location in physical or cyber space (though it may be that too). We understand ‘public knowledge’ to be that knowledge which is articulated and/or expressed by all, including those people who are routinely excluded from traditional public spaces. People require public spaces in which they can discover, construct, develop and reinterpret knowledge of various kinds, and, in some cases, use the knowledge to help resolve practical problems they face. The nature of these spaces is changing as society (including its schools and universities) evolves. We point out that the traditional theoretical frameworks of political philosophy are unable to deal with the complexity of social space in today’s society. They depend heavily on the notion  of the public ‘forum’ (or sphere), that is a space available to all citizens - accessible to them and usable by them. This notion is inadequate even within the limited context of Higher Education and its communities.  

Review comment in the British Educational Research Journal, 31 (3) 2005: Jean Barr and Morwenna Griffiths ‘find languages of hope’ and ‘make people central’, which is refreshing after the gloomy picture of the postmodern university in ‘Dark Times’. They foreground the need for inclusiveness in HE, and discuss Arendt’s notion of ‘training the imagination to go visiting’. They question the existence of clear-cut boundaries between public and private space, and celebrate the enrichment offered by enhancing permeability towards groups outside the academy, using new spaces with the potential to help university spaces ‘loosen up’.)

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Ten principles of social justice in educational research:two cases of contract research’ Review Journal of Philosophy and the Social Sciences 27 (2) 2002

Morwenna Griffiths and Maxine Greene, ‘Feminism, philosophy and education: imagining public spaces’ in N. Blake, P. Smeyers, R. Smith and P. Standish (eds.) The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Education Oxford: Basil Blackwell 2002.     We begin by explaining ourselves, if we can. This chapter is not “philosophy-asusual,” as ordinarily conceived. Perhaps it would be strange if it were, since, as we mean to show, feminism is precisely a way of rethinking the “usual.”  We need to explain ourselves, however, because our individual voices, perspectives, positions, locations, and social relationships – our situations – are irreducibly part of the ways we do feminist philosophy of education. We are fully aware that there is no one “feminism”; there are multiple points of view described as “feminist.” ... Striving to actualize the givenness of her being as a woman, to “make articulate and call into full existence what otherwise they would have to suffer passively anyhow” (Arendt, 1958, p. 208), each of us feel ourselves to be not only women but distinctive beings, whose uniqueness must be taken into account by any theory that is made or story that is told. The form of the chapter reflects this. Much of it is in dialogue; and the whole arose from dialogues carried out in letters and (often taped) conversations. After this preliminary introduction we present a short, assertive overview of feminisms in relation to philosophy (of education). This is followed by our two personal narratives of identity and philosophy of education. The last section is a brief demonstration of what a feminist approach to philosophy of education might be: we undertake this in relation to social justice.

Morwenna Griffiths and Joseph Windle, Helping teacher educators learn to research: bread and roses? Fourth International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex August 2002

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Questions of personal autonomy’ in K.W.M. Fulford, D.L. Dickenson and T.M. Murray (eds.) The Blackwell Reader in Healthcare Ethics Oxford: Basil Blackwell 2002.     I use the experience of women to investigate the concept of autonomy by looking at how it enters both into gender stereotypes and into mainstream philosophy. I consider how autonomy and independence appear in the subjective experience of women and in the way they live their lives. In doing so I develop an alternative model of autonomy which fits the experience of both women and men. Further, I argue that women have been asserting their autonomy and acting on these assertions. I then go on to suggest reasons why, in spite of such assertions, so many of us are still in positions where it is hard to act. The reasons are to do with the structures of violence which support masculine ways of understanding, and which constrain the possibilities of self-creation for both men and women.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘“Nothing grand”: small tales and working for social justice’ in J. Loughran and T. Russell (eds.) Reframing Teacher Education Practices: Exploring meaning through self-study Falmer Press 2002

Deborah Chetcuti and Morwenna Griffiths, ‘The implications for student self-esteem of ordinary differences in different schools: the cases of Malta and England’ British Educational Research Journal 28 (4) 2002  This article explores self-esteem and its relationship with achievement and difference. It is written as an ongoing narrative between the two authors, who through their autobiographical conversations try to come to terms with the effects of ordinary (i.e. unexceptional, non-deviant) differences on self-esteem. Through a critical analysis of their own experiences as students, teachers, researchers and academics, the authors try to explore how differences are discursively constructed and how they might be reconstructed. The article is in three parts. It starts with an analytic enquiry of the construction of individual self-esteem. The authors argue that current orthodoxy about self-esteem is oversimplified because it focuses on an individual's response to personal achievement and to face-to-face social relationships. It is argued that the story must be much more complex and include issues of social justice. The second part uses qualitative data from Malta and England and autobiographical data in order to explore the relationship between self-esteem and the achievements and aspirations of students. The third and final part uses these results to construct a concept of 'ordinary difference' which celebrates individual and socio-political differences rather than tries to standardise them.

Morwenna Griffiths and Mitja Sardoc, The School Field: Special Issue on Justice in/and Education 2001/2 Educators, world-wide, recognise the importance of the topic of this two volume Special Issue of the School Field journal: ‘Social Justice in/and Education’. Everywhere, the hope of social justice is inextricably interlinked  with hopes of and for education. As Pádraig Hogan points out in the opening article, Plato made the link, most memorably, in The Republic. Recent attempts to link education, instead, to economic performance or to narrow measures of attainment, have only served to highlight the centrality of social justice to education, its purposes and practices. That this is no narrowly national concern is shown by the international profile of the contributors. They come from Australia, Canada, England, Ireland, Sweden, Pakistan and the USA. Nor are their discussions confined to their own countries of residence. The articles also focus on concerns in Botswana, Finland, Macedonia, Namibia, New Zealand, South Africa and Spain. In this regard it is probably significant that several of the contributors have evidently migrated between countries and their different educational systems.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Social justice for education: what kind of theory is needed?’ The School Field (Special Issue: Justice in/and Education) XII (1/2) 2001 The main question to be addressed in this paper is: ‘What is needed from a theory of social justice for education?’ In answering, I first make some remarks about its relevance and about the methodology underpinning the way I set about answering it. I argue for an approach I call ‘practical philosophy’. I go on to give a brief review of some standard philosophical accounts of ‘social justice’. I then describe an attempt to move forward from these accounts using a process which was designed to be an instance of ‘practical philosophy’, in that it enables me to do ‘philosophy as and with’ educational researchers. Some preliminary, possible (and certainly corrigible) results are presented. Finally in order to draw some conclusions I reflect critically on how much agreement they might command, and what implications should be drawn. A critical reflection follows which focuses on what is new, and what the implications might be for different theories of social justice, including my own (Griffiths 1998a, 1998b).

Morwenna Griffiths and Kenneth Dunkwu, Approaching Social Justice in Education: Theoretical Frameworks for Practical Purposes BERA (Review of Research) 2001

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Theorising social justice for education’ Annual Conference of the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain Oxford April 2000

Morwenna Griffiths, Richard Winter and Kath Green ‘The academic qualities of practice: what are the criteria for a practice-based doctorate?’ Studies in Higher Education 25 (1) 2000

Morwenna Griffiths and Graham Impey, Working Partnerships: Better Research and Learning Nottingham Trent University 2000 We think some of the best, most productive, longest lived, and most useful educational developments come about through partnership. But partnerships are much easier to talk about than to do. They are also very difficult to keep going. The truth is that partnerships do not always work well, though the recommendations and policies of those involved in education, especially policy makers and decision makers at every level, often give the impression that partnerships can be set up and made to work easily, perhaps following a few simple guidelines. The idea behind the book is the belief that if we are, collectively, going to get better at doing partnership, we should start by understanding what works (and what does not) and what is worth doing. We believe that what is needed is more honest appraisal of real partnerships, what made them work (if they did) and what made them valuable (if they were). So we have in this book a number of accounts of partnerships which do just that.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Collaboration and partnership in question: knowledge, politics and practiceJournal of Education Policy (Special Issue: Philosophical Perspectives on Education Policy) 15 (4) 2000 Provides a framework for critiquing assumptions about the collaboration process, highlighting concepts of public space and power. Key issues are the private-public distinction and the "public space" metaphor. Collective spaces are made by groups (formal institutions or persons), who can debate with each other and act. (Contains 42 references.)

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘ “Nothing Grand”: Small tales and working for social justice’ Third International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex August 2000

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Playing at/as being authentic’ in J. Swift (ed.) Art Education Discourses: Leaf and Seed Birmingham:ARTicle Press 1999

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Aiming for a fair education: what use is philosophy?’ in R. Marples (ed.) Aims of Education London and New York: Routledge 1999

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Principles of social justice in educational research: the case of contract research’ The School Field X (1/2) (1999) Delineates small-scale contract-research principles predicated on an understanding of social justice and of research purposes, epistemological issues, and possibilities for ethical and political action. Principles embrace improvement, knowledge and learning, changed belief systems, collaboration and consultation, openness to other communities, reflexivity, and responsibility. Two cases are profiled. (24 references)

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Towards a theoretical framework for understanding social justice in educational practice Educational Philosophy and Theory 30 (2) 1998

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Telling stories about collaboration: secrets and lies?’ Second International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices at Herstmonceux Castle, Sussex August 1998

Morwenna Griffiths, 'Telling Stories about Collaboration: Secrets and Lies?' Paper presented at BERA 1998 in the Symposium: Narrative/Fiction and the Art of Research

Morwenna Griffiths, Educational Research for Social Justice: Getting off the Fence Buckingham: Open University Press 1998 This is a book for all researchers in educational settings whose research is motivated by considerations of justice, fairness and equity. It addresses questions such researchers have to face. Will a prior political or ethical commitment bias the research? How far can the ideas of empowerment or ‘giving a voice’ be realized? How can researchers who research communities to which they belong deal with the ethical issues of being both insider and outsider? The book provides a set of principles for doing educational research for social justice. Theoretical arguments and the realities of practical research are brought together and interwoven. Thus the book is helpful to all researchers, whether they are just beginning their first project or whether they are already highly experienced.

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London and Indiana: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988 Philosophy and feminism have much to offer each other – although to date mainstream philosophy has largely ignored the debates of modern feminism. The papers in this book point out that philosophy is in urgent need of a feminist perspective. It is argued that not only political philosophy but also epistemology, ontology, philosophy of mind and ethics will be affected by the reconceptualisations that feminism proposes. These articles demonstrate in a variety of ways where bias occurs and how it might be redressed. They also show that redressing it is a matter of importance to feminists as well as to philosophers.

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford, ‘Introduction’ in M. Griffiths and M. Whitford (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminism, feelings and philosophy’ in M. Griffiths and M. Whitford (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, David Bridges and Wilfred Carr Cambridge Journal of Education: Special issue on Philosophy and Educational Research 1997. Papers have been contributed from both sides of the institutional divide between 'philosophy of education' and 'educational research'. Papers by Bridges, Griffiths, Carr and Gore address the question of the divide, challenge the epistemological and metaphysical assumptions which have allowed it to develop and consider how it should be repaired or spanned. Other papers address the question by example, demonstrating various ways in which the connections can be made. Blake, writing from the perspective of philosophy of education, and Wilcox, from the perspective of educational research, each show how the ideas of a philosopher (Habermas and Maclntyre respectively) can illuminate current concerns in education and they use both empirical and philosophical material to do so. Siraj-Blatchford & Siraj-Blatchford address the issue of reflexivity, which features centrally in both philosophy and educational research. Haywood & Mac an Ghaill demonstrate how methodological writing borrows from philosophy. Burbules shifts the focus to the relationship between the form and content of educational scholarship.

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford, Women Review Philosophy: New Writing by Women in Philosophy Nottingham University 1996 The papers in this special issue of Women’s Philosophy Review demonstrate that feminist philosophy in Britain is flourishing. Some of the authors are already well-known; others are newer in the field. The combination makes for an interesting and varied set of papers. People outside the area tend to think that ‘feminist philosophy’ is a broadly homogeneous subject area, but these papers show otherwise. They come for right across the landscape of contemporary philosophy. Feminist philosophy finds its home wherever philosophers are working, in all branches of philosophy and whatever their philosophical approach – whether drawing more on analytic, or more on post-structural and postmodern approaches.

Morwenna Griffiths, Feminisms and the Self: The Web of Identity London and New York: Routledge 1995 What does the politics of the self mean for a politics of liberation? Morwenna Griffiths argues that mainstream philosophy, particularly the anglo-analytic tradition, needs to tackle the issues of the self, identity, autonomy and self creation. Although identity has been a central concern of feminist thought it has in the main been excluded from philosophical analysis.
Feminisms and the Self is both a critique and a construction of feminist philosophy. After the powerful challenges that postmodernism and poststructuralism posed to liberation movements like feminism, Griffiths book is an original and timely contribution to current debate surrounding the notion of identity and subjectivity.

"The idea of using autobiographies as material for philosophical reflection turns out to be brilliantly justified." - Margaret Whitford

"The positioning of the emotions at the centre of the account is most welcome, and the book is written with the anchorage in experience and sensitivity to differences we hope for from the best feminist theorists." - Kathleen Lennon

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminist perspectives on the use of life narratives in a primary classroom’ in D. Thomas (ed.) Teachers’ Stories Buckingham: Open University Press 1995

Morwenna Griffiths and Carol Davies, In Fairness to Children: Working for Social Justice in the Primary School London: David Fulton 1995 How can one best work for justice and empowerment in the ever-changing, real-life messy world of primary school classrooms? Written by a full-time teacher and an action-researcher, this book points out opportunities to work for fairness for all children and teachers.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Self-determination and learning to be cruel: gender, race and the construction of self in relation to bullying and harassmentEuropean Journal of Women’s Studies 98 (2) 1998

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘The discourses of social justice in schoolsBritish Educational Research Journal 24 (3) 1998 Argues that it is possible to use and build on contemporary theoretical and practical discourses surrounding issues of social justice to improve schools. Describes a method of formulating, in conjunction with practitioners, a set of theoretically-informed social-justice principles for managing schools.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Towards a theoretical framework for understanding social justice in educational practice’ Educational Philosophy and Theory 30 (2) 1998

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Why teachers and philosophers need each other: philosophy and educational researchCambridge Journal of Education (Special Issue: Philosophy and Educational Research) 27 (2) 1997 Presents an argument about the relationship of philosophy to teaching and the way each could inform and change the other. Rejects a metaphor of philosophy as a disconnected map for practitioners; argues that this is unhelpful and that a means of communication between the two areas must be found.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Know thyself: philosophy/self-study’ First International Conference of the Self-study of Teacher Education Practices) Herstmonceux, Sussex August 1996

Morwenna Griffiths and Carol Davies, ‘Insults and injuries: bullying and harassment in primary schools’ Current Research in Early Childhood 79 (Spring) 1996

Morwenna Griffiths and Carol Davies, ‘Learning to learn: action research from an equal opportunities perspective in a junior school’ British Educational Research Journal 19 (1) 1993  The project described is action research into pupils' learning in a (years 5 and 6) class of a primary school, which was carried out by the class teacher and an eduction lecturer, in partnership. While the focus of the research was on the processes of pupils' learning, the overriding research question was the possibility of improving equality of opportunity for pupils in a socially and racially mixed classroom. The resulting innovative, participative methodology is discussed. It is argued that the pupils were empowered by their involvement in the setting up of the research and in drawing conclusions from it. This process is described, and the effects on the children's ability to learn and reflect on their own learning needs are reported. Finally, the question of how far research of this kind should be extended to an explicit focus on race, class or gender is raised.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Making a difference: feminism, postmodernism and the methodology of educational researchBritish Educational Research Journal 21 (2) 1995 Reviews and describes different versions of feminism and postmodernism. Reviews the current debate about the challenges that the two sets of theories offer to traditional epistomologies. Concludes with suggestions about the influence of feminism and postmodernism on educational research.

Morwenna Griffiths and Barry Troyna, Anti-racism, Culture and Social Justice in Education Stoke: Trentham 1995

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Auto/biography and epistemologyEducational Review 47 (1) 1995 The focus in this paper is on the epistemological status of a range of methods used in educational research and teacher education which may be called (auto)biographical. On the one hand the epistemological soundness of such methods is in question, while, on the other hand, traditional epistemology itself is also in question as a result of a range of challenges, including those coming from feminism. This paper focuses on the challenge from feminist epistemologies. It is argued that feminists have demonstrated that reliable knowledge can only be achieved through a process which includes, fundamentally, the subjectivity or experiences of individuals and groups of individuals; power and politics; and a dialectic of theory with individual experiences. It is further argued that (auto)biographical methods are well placed to include these factors, although not all (auto)biographies will do so. It is concluded that some, but only some, (auto)biographical methods are epistemologically sound. The confessional, apolitical and atheoretical ones are not so useful as those which take account of politics and theories for public purposes.

Morwenna Griffiths and Marie Parker-Jenkins, ‘Methodological and ethical dilemmas in international research: school attendance and gender in GhanaOxford Review of Education 20 (4) 1994. The paper considers questions of ethics and methodology in international research. An action research project designed for Ghana/UNICEF as part of a consultancy on school attendance is used as a case-study from which to examine the ethical dilemmas facing consultants and their clients in educational research carried out as part of international aid. Ethical dilemmas of resourcing, ownership, accountability and self-interest are discussed by the English consultants. It thus has a double purpose. It both contributes to research on school attendance, and also furthers debate about methodology and constraints on it.  

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminism, feelings and philosophy (selection)’ in D.C. Abel Fifty Readings in Philosophy New York: McGraw Hill 1994

Morwenna Griffiths, Christian Akwesi, and Marie Parker-Jenkins ‘International consultancy about action research: questions of methodology and ethics’ in P. Lomax and J. Whitehead (eds.) Accounting for Ourselves: Action learning, Action Research and Process Management University of Bath 1994

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Autobiography, feminism and the practice of action-research’ International Journal of Educational Action Research 2 (1) 1994

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Self-identity and self-esteem: achieving equality in educationOxford Review of Education 19 (3) 1993 Psychological and educational theories about self-esteem in education emphasise its dependence on achievement and/or self-actualisation. Government recommendations follow their lead. In this paper an alternative theory of self-esteem is developed, drawing on feminist explorations of the politics of identity. Experiences of 'belonging' and 'not belonging' are central to the theory. The theory of the self is compared with Liberal and Romantic theories, which underpin the achievement-oriented understanding of self-esteem. Conclusions are drawn about the relationship between the development of self-esteem of children in schools, and educational policies of social justice. It is argued that improvement of the self-esteem of minority or oppressed groups would result in their empowerment and is, therefore, a political, not a psychological, issue.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Educational change and the self’ British Journal of Educational Studies 41 (2) 1993

Morwenna Griffiths and Anne Seller, ‘The politics of identity, the politics of the self’ Women: A Cultural Review (Special Issue: Gendering philosophy) 3 (2) 1992

Morwenna Griffiths, Self-identity, Self-esteem, and Social Justice Nottingham: University of Nottingham 1992

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Autonomy and the fear of dependence’ Women’s Studies International Forum 15 (3) 1992 Autonomy is often thought to be a problem for women. I suggest that the problem of autonomy is a problem for (some) men and that they wish their problems onto the rest of us. The difficulty of understanding autonomy and its related concepts of independence, dependence, individuality, etc., is exacerbated by the present structure of western traditions of thought, as shown by our language. Some things are difficult to say in it. Feminist theory and practice have helped to point up the contradictions and incoherence in masculine ways of talking. Language needs reclaiming. I shall describe how this may be done as part of a politics of reflection and action.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminist concepts of the practice of education’ European Conference of Women and Power, Mantua, Italy, 1992 (Published version in Italian)

 Morwenna Griffiths and Sarah Tann, ‘Using reflective practice to link personal and public theories’ Journal of Education for Teaching 18 (1) 1992

Morwenna Griffiths and Anne Seller, ‘The politics of identity, the politics of the self’ Women: A Cultural Review (Special Issue: Gendering philosophy) 3 (2) 1992  Morwenna Griffiths, Self-identity, Self-esteem, and Social Justice Nottingham: University of Nottingham 1992

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Self-identity and self-esteem: implications for school policy and classroom practice’ Annual Conference of the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain Roehampton, April 1991   Psychological and educational theories about self-esteem in education emphasise its dependence on achievement and/or self-actualisation. Government recommendations follow their lead. In this paper an alternative theory of self-esteem is developed, drawing on feminist explorations of the politics of identity. Experiences of 'belonging' and 'not belonging' are central to the theory. The theory of the self is compared with Liberal and Romantic theories, which underpin the achievement-oriented understanding of self-esteem. Conclusions are drawn about the relationship between the development of self-esteem of children in schools, and educational policies of social justice. It is argued that improvement of the self-esteem of minority or oppressed groups would result in their empowerment and is, therefore, a political, not a psychological, issue.

Morwenna Griffiths and Sarah Tann, ‘Ripples in the reflection’ in P. Lomax (ed.) Managing Better Schools and Colleges: an action research approach Clevedon: Multilingual Matters 1991

Morwenna Griffiths and Kate Ashcroft, ‘Action research in teacher education’ in O. Zuber-Skerritt (ed.) Action Research in Higher Education Brisbane: Griffith University 1991

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Action research: grassroots practice or management tool?’ in P. Lomax (ed.) Managing Staff Development in Schools Clevedon: Multilingual Matters 1990

Morwenna Griffiths and Kate Ashcroft, ‘Reflective teachers and reflective tutors: school experience in an initial teacher education course’ Journal of Education for Teaching 15 (1) 1989

Morwenna Griffiths and Richard Smith, ‘Standing alone: dependence, independence and interdependence in the practice of education’ Annual Conference of the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain Roehampton, and AERA in San Francisco April 1989 Independence and the related concepts of freedom and autonomy are key terms in philosophy of education. Teacher educators are keen on independence, but seem to hold different definitions of the concept, and these various definitions do not co-exist happily. The relative autonomy that one may be able to achieve is not to be had unless one acknowledges one's dependence. Without that acknowledgment, the independence that adults hurry toward and hurry their children toward, does not bring the adult solidity and security that were expected. Of course it is quite easy to get children to imitate and internalize the conventional models of independence, but this does not last because true autonomy requires that one have experienced and still be in touch with one's feelings of dependence.

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London and Indiana: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988.  Philosophy and feminism have much to offer each other – although to date mainstream philosophy has largely ignored the debates of modern feminism. The papers in this book point out that philosophy is in urgent need of a feminist perspective. It is argued that not only political philosophy but also epistemology, ontology, philosophy of mind and ethics will be affected by the reconceptualisations that feminism proposes. These articles demonstrate in a variety of ways where bias occurs and how it might be redressed. They also show that redressing it is a matter of importance to feminists as well as to philosophers.

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Whitford, ‘Introduction’ in M. Griffiths and M. Whitford (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Feminism, feelings and philosophy’ in M. Griffiths and M. Whitford (eds.) Feminist Perspectives in Philosophy London: Macmillan, and Indiana University Press 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Why philosophy needs feminism’ Cogito 3 (3) 1989.  Philosophers are usually much more likely to think that they are needed than needy. That philosophy needs feminism is a startling concept to many philosophers. Surely, many professional philosophers would argue, philosophy is a deeply neutral subject, with no room for points of view. It may, they would continue, become political, but only when it is 'applied'. Feminist philosophers deny all this: philosophy both as practised and in its content shows all the signs of being male-dominated and masculine.

Morwenna Griffiths and Richard Smith, ‘Standing alone: dependence, independence and interdependence’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 23 (2) 1989 In practice, in everyday talk and action, there is no doubt that teachers acknowledge the importance of other people. The class teacher who believes that primary children should work entirely on their own, that he should know as little as possible about their home backgrounds and that there is a set curriculum to deliver to each of them is not typical of primary teachers. (Tertiary education, teacher education not excepted, is far more likely to be like this.) Most teachers take friendship patterns very seriously, and attach importance to their own personal relationships with the children in their class. They are also likely to pay a lot of attention to the importance of the home, community and culture as an influence on the child. The importance of other people in the development of children remains, however, insufficiently acknowledged as far as the development of self and of knowledge are concerned. In literature, whether with a psychological or philosophical flavour, it is far more common to find ‘autonomy’ and its cognates posited as the end to which development tends than any recognition that most of us gladly choose a world in which our autonomy is constrained by personal relationships.

Morwenna Griffiths and Kate Ashcroft, ‘Reflective teachers and reflective tutors: school experience in an initial teacher education course’ Journal of Education for Teaching 15 (1) 1989

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Strong feelings about computers’ Women’s Studies International Forum 11 (2) 1988 Women are becoming absent from the world of computers. The reasons for this are related to the way computers have become associated with technology. Technology and masculinity are also strongly associated. The lack of logic of these associations is examined, and their danger is noted. The danger arises because it is femininity rather than masculinity which is associated with feelings and personal relationships. Thus technology is taken to be unencumbered by feelings and emotions, mistakenly so. As feminist theory and practice makes clear, the unrecognised feelings push technological development in undesirable directions. Unless both the illogicality of the associations and their power are recognised, attempts to persuade women and girls to take up computing may do as much harm as good, strengthening the very associations which need to be weakened. Some strategies which would help women and girls enter the computing world are discussed. It is pointed out that any strategies that are tried need to be underpineed by three things: vigilance, subversion, and the creation of an alternative vision. Vigilance is needed to see what is going on: a continual critical monitoring of the changing scene. Vigilance should lead to subversion. Computer culture is man made and it needs to be feminised from within. However, criticism and subversion fail if no alternative is offered. An alternative vision is needed to see how else we could make the world.

Morwenna Griffiths and Margaret Alfrey, ‘Girls and computers in primary schools’ Journal of Curriculum Studies 20 (5) 1988

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Teaching skills and the skills of teaching’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 21 (2) 1987

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Hirst’s forms of knowledge and Korner’s categorial frameworks’ Oxford Review of Education 12 (2) 1986 Public policy on education is undergoing a number of significant changes. Hirst's theory of the forms of knowledge is influential in determining the direction of these. I consider his theory and examine its philosophical underpinning. I conclude that, in the absence of any other clear demonstration or argument, Hirst must be relying on Korner's analysis of categorial frameworks. I show that Korner's analysis only partly supports Hirst's theory. Further, I show that, if Korner's theory is correct, Hirst's theory needs modifying. The modification has practical implications for educational policy. I argue that Hirst is right that children need to be introduced to knowledge dealing with a range of ultimate categorial concepts. However, unlike Hirst, I argue that knowledge is not to be reduced to verbal knowledge. I also argue that there are not a limited number of forms of knowledge. Indeed education should extend a cautious welcome to the new ways of theorising that arise from different sectors of society. Moreover, there is a difference between highly theoretical, abstract knowledge and less theoretical concrete knowledge, which is highly significant in any consideration of education 5-16, and which has  been overlooked in the theory.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Vigilance, subversion and imagination about computers’ The European Conference on Women, Natural Sciences and Technology, Aalborg, Denmark, 1986

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Dunlop, expression and emotion’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 19 (2) 1985.   Francis Dunlop’s book, The Education of Feeling and Emotion challenges the prevailing orthodoxy on emotion that exists among philosophers of education. Such a challenge is long overdue. In the book, Dunlop moves away from those formulations of the education of emotions which were fashioned in the heyday of conceptual analysis, towards a more phenomenological account. He suggests possible ways of looking at feelings which have implications for priorities in education. All this is entirely welcome. This said, Dunlop has taken on an impossible task in writing the book. He has tried to provide a brief, readable survey of the field for beginners in philosophy of education, while at the same time raising profound questions which are new to the tradition of the field. This would have been hard enough. In addition, however, he has tried to raise these questions as part of a tradition quite unfamiliar to many English speaking philosophers of emotion, that of Continental, mainly German language, phenomenology.

Morwenna Griffiths, ‘Emotions and education’ Journal of Philosophy of Education 18 (2) 1984.   A new orthodoxy of emotion has replaced the ‘traditional view’ in which emotions and feelings were not considered to be rational. In contrast, in the new orthodoxy emotions are rational, cognitive, and related to logic and understanding. Little emphasis is put on occurrent feelings, experience, or consciousness. It is a useful counter to the view it combats, in which emotions are thought to be irrational, inexplicable, and unrelated to the understanding. However, the theory has serious shortcomings. The alternative I propose requires a reassessment both of emotion and of rationality. It reintroduces occurrent feeling, experience and consciousness. In Section One, I assert my initial position, firstly about feeling and emotion, and secondly about rationality. In Section Two I go on to show how this position leads to conclusions about emotions and education. I do this by discussing the relationship between rationality and feeling. This leads into a consideration of irrationality and its relationship to being emotional. As a result, it becomes possible in Section Three to achieve a greater exactness of terminology and to say more precisely what is meant by an emotion. Finally, on the basis of the analysis, some examples of the implications for education are given in Section Four.

 

 

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